Frequently Asked Questions – Bitcoin Electrum

Two transactions through circle pending but not sending /r/Bitcoin

Two transactions through circle pending but not sending /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Jackpot City Casino 25 free spins bonus on Immortal Romance (Exclusive)

Jackpot City Casino 25 free spins bonus on Immortal Romance (Exclusive)

Jackpot City Casino Gratis Spins and Free Bonuses
If you are a new player to Jackpot City Casino, then take advantage of 25 free spins on Immortal Romance! This is an exclusive welcome bonus on of $1600 free cash bonus.
>> Get Free Credits Now >>

Jackpot City Casino Full Review

Jackpot City Casino is an international gaming site which includes nearly 500 online casinos, mobile casino, live dealer games, and lottery-style games. Jackpot City is compatible with desktop or mobile software, so customers can play using an Android phone, iPhone, iPad and Windows PC. Players also can bet in the web browser without a download. Jackpot Casino City is licensed by the Malta Gaming Authority and the Kahnawake Gaming Commission.
Jackpot City Casino provides a $1,600 welcome bonus for new players. This cash is spread over your first 4 deposits, which makes it easy to collect the full bonus. Jackpot City accepts all major credit cards, as well as e-Wallets like Skrill and Neteller. Payouts are fast by industry standards, while every transaction use 128-bit SSL encryption technology.

Jackpot City Casino Review Summary

Jackpot City Casino is a long-established and trusted online casino. The site was launched in 1998, so it has a 20-year history of satisfying customers with cutting-edge games and reliable payouts. Though it’s old by industry standards, in our Jackpot City Casino review we noticed that it provides the trendiest games on the market today: live baccarat, roulette, and blackjack dealers.
Jackpot City Casino uses Microgaming and Evolution Gaming software to present the games, so the casino has nearly 1,000 popular games. Players can play progressive slots with over $6 million in jackpots or choose from over 40 variations of blackjack and over a dozen forms of roulette.
Jackpot City Live Casino has 8 different live dealer games, including two live baccarat games and two live table poker games. Mobile players can play over 150 casino games, including Microgaming’s best online blackjack and roulette. Jackpot City Casino’s mobile slots list includes some of the most popular video slots in the world, including progressive jackpot slots and licensed slots.
Bonus Amount: $1,600
Platforms Supported: Microsoft and Windows.
Type of Casino: Online, Download, Instant Play, Mobile.
Number of games: 1,000+
>> Get Free Credits Now >>

Payment and Processing Information

Jackpot City Casino has a tremendous number of deposit and withdrawal methods. If you have a single preferred method of payment, the chances are great that Jackpot City Casino supports it. When it’s time to withdraw your winnings, JackpotCity has a pending time of a day or two. Keep in mind that individual payment methods have their own delays.
Read through the expected delivery times to determine which is the best payment method for you.
WITHDRAWAL
  • Methods: MasterCard, Visa, Visa Delta, Visa Electron, NETELLER, PayPal, Skrill, Moneta.RU, Transferencia Bancaria Local, WebMoney, ecoPayz, eKonto, Postepay, Qiwi Wallet, EntroPay, iDebit, InstaDebit, Yandex, Check/Cheque, eCheck, Courier Check, Bank Wire Transfer, Direct/Local/Fast Bank Transfers, and EFT (Wire Transfer).
  • Limits: $4,000 Euros per week withdrawal limit. VIP players should negotiate withdrawal terms with the cashier.
  • Expected Withdrawal Times:24 to 48-hour pending process.
    • EWallet cashouts: 24 to 48 hours.
    • Credit Card and Debit Cards: 2 to 6 days.
    • Bank Transfers 3 to 7 business days.
    • Cheques arrive in 14 to 21 days.
DEPOSIT
  • Methods: MasterCard, Maestro, Visa, Visa Delta, Visa Electron, NETELLER, PayPal, Skrill, Skrill 1-Tap, iDeal, Paysafecard, Trustly, Citadel Instant Banking, Postepay, Abaqus, Euteller, mpass, Neosurf, Pago en Efectivo, todito Cash, GiroPay, MB Multibanco, MoneySafe Prepaid Card, Qiwi Wallet, Transferencia Bancaria Local, AstroPay Card, Boleto Bancario, Przelewy24, Reverse Withdrawal Request, SEB Bank: Direct Bank Transfer, DineroMail, eps, ecoPayz, Moneta.RU, eKonto, EntroPay, iDebit, InstaDebit, WebMoney, Payforit, Teleingreso, Yandex, Bank Wire Transfer, eCheck, and Direct/Local/Fast Bank Transfers.
  • Limits:No deposit limits are imposed.
  • Expected Deposit Time: Instant. Deposits should appear in your account instantly.
VIP LEVEL WITHDRAWAL LIMITS
Jackpot City Casino offers different withdrawal limits, depending on the VIP level the player attains. Jackpot City Casino’s Loyalty Programme is a 6-tier program based on the collection of loyalty points. From blue level to diamond level, each time you reach a new plateau, you’ll receive benefits, including 5% to 20% tier bonuses, personal account managers, and higher withdrawal rates.
Jackpot City Casino’s Loyalty Programme accumulates points for all the Cityviews Group websites, including Spin Palace, Ruby Fortune, and Mummy’s Gold Casino.
GENERAL INFORMATION
  • Limits Increased: Yes. The default withdrawal limit is €4,000 per week.
  • Customer Support: 1-800-890-3304
  • Email Address: [email protected]
  • Phone number: +44-800-917-8547
  • Response Time: Inquiries responded to instantly via Live Chat. Withdrawals within 48 hours.
  • Live Chat: Yes.
  • Languages: English, Spanish, French, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish, Polish, English (EU), Latvian, Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese (Brazilian), and Turkish.
>> Get Free Credits Now >>

Jackpot City Live Casino Games

Jackpot City Live Casino is powered by Evolution Gaming Live, the leading live dealer provider in the online casino industry. Jackpot City Casino Live features 8 different table games. The list includes multiple tables of Live Blackjack, Live Baccarat, and Live Roulette, so players can bet at limits appropriate to their bankroll. Players also can play live dealer versions 3-Card Poker, Caribbean Stud, Ultimate Texas Hold’em, Dream Catcher, and Baccarat Squeeze.

Live Dealer Blackjack

In the live dealer blackjack tables, players will be able to find two types of blackjack variants: Classic Blackjack and Party Blackjack.
  • Available Blackjack Tables: Only 2 tables, each with 7 seats, but has the “Bet Behind” feature, meaning you can bet on other players’ hands until you’re seated.
  • Betting Limits: £/€/$25 to £/€/$300

Live Dealer Roulette

Classic European Roulette, French Roulette, Double Ball Roulette, Speed Roulette, Dual Play Roulette, and Mini Roulette. Live dealer tables have multiple camera angles, so you get the action you want in real-time.
  • Available Roulette Tables: 24 in total, but the number of open tables depends on the time of day.
  • Betting Limits in General: £/€/$10 to £/€/$500

Live Dealer Baccarat

Playing live dealer games eliminates the need for random number generators and video simulations. This is the way baccarat is meant to be played, with real card decks. Players will be able to find live dealer Punto Banco and Baccarat Squeeze at Jackpot City Casino.
  • Available Baccarat Tables: 35
  • Betting Limits: £/€/$1 to £/€/$500

Live Dealer Poker

At Jackpot City, players will be able to find three types of live dealer poker, including Three Card Poker, Caribbean Stud Poker, Live Ultimate Texas Hold’em Poker. In live dealer, poker gamblers have the easy controls and hand histories, combined with the camaraderie and excitement of real-life poker casino gaming.
  • Available Poker Tables?: 1
  • Betting Limits: £/€/$1 to £/€/$1000

Live Dream Catcher

Dream Catcher is a spinning wheel game. Live hostesses spin a wheel of fortune with various prizes on the wheel. If you play slot machines a lot, then Dream Catcher is similar to the U-Spin bonus games on a Bally Technologies slots or IGT’s Wheel of Fortune bonus game.
  • Available Dream Catcher Tables: 1
  • Betting Limits: $0.10 to $1,000
>> Get Free Credits Now >>

Jackpot City Bonuses and Promotions

JackpotCity Casino has a $1,600 deposit bonus, a bitcoin bonus, daily and weekly bonuses, and a loyalty program fit for penny players and high rollers alike. JackpotCity Casino’s bonuses and promotions are competitive with other international online casinos. The first bonus you’ll receive is realistic, while the rollover requirements are better than most online casinos. Players even are allowed to play blackjack and video poker to satisfy the wagering requirements.

$1,600 Deposit Bonus

The main deposit bonus at JackpotCity Casino is $1,600. This welcome bonus offers 100% up to $400 on your first four deposits, making it an attainable offer which many customers should have a realistic chance of maxing out. The playthrough requirement is 50x the bonus.
Games that have wagering requirements:
  • Video Poker
  • Blackjack
  • Roulette
Games excluded from the wagering requirement are Craps, Baccarat, Table Poker, Casino War, Red Dog, and Sic Bo.

Deal-a-Day Bonuses

The Deal-a-Day Bonus renews every 24 hours. On your first deposit of the day, no matter what day of the week it is, you’ll receive a special deposit bonus.
These deals change all the time, but there are several important things to remember:
  1. You receive a bonus anytime you make a single deposit in the day.
  2. If you plan to make one deposit in a week, check the current Deal-a-Day bonus list to see which daily bonus you prefer.
  3. If you plan to make multiple bonuses in a day, make sure your first deposit of the day is the biggest, because that’s when you’ll get the biggest advantages.

Special Bonuses

JackpotCity Casino also has country-specific bonuses, birthday bonuses, and special holiday bonuses. Again, these are tailored to fit your country of residence, so it’s impossible in a short space to list all the promotions. Most of these are unannounced giveaways. When you sign up, ask the Jackpot City cashier about special bonuses.

Jackpot City VIP Club

The Jackpot City VIP Club has a number of advantages, including tier bonuses at 5 different levels and the ability to trade loyalty points for cash. You can use loyalty points to buy freerolls into lucrative tournaments. To advance to the next VIP level, you’ll need to accumulate loyalty points. Every 10 credits you receive become 2 to 3 Loyalty Points, depending on the types of games you’re playing. Slots, keno, and scratchcards are worth 3 loyalty points, while most table games and video poker games are worth 2 loyalty points. Players receive auction points alongside loyalty points, which can be used to bid on Jackpot City Casino merchandise.
>> Get Free Credits Now >>

Games Offered at Jackpot City Casino

Jackpot City Casino has a comprehensive set of online casinos games. Microgaming designed all the online slots, video poker, and table games, so the list of online blackjack and roulette is huge. Microgaming has one of the largest collections of slots titles, with over 400 video slots. That includes licensed slots with real clips and soundbites from famous pop culture franchises, along with a long list of progressive jackpot slots. The current biggest jackpot on a JackpotCity Casino progressive slot is over $6 million.

Table Games

Players receive can play several dozen table games at Jackpot City Casino, including multiple versions of baccarat, blackjack, and roulette. Fourteen variations of roulette are available, including European Roulette, American Roulette, and French Roulette. Most versions of roulette include gold series titles with enhanced graphics, while several have VIP and high limit versions for those who prefer high stakes roulette.
  • Baccarat
  • Multiplayer Baccarat
  • Craps
  • Mahjong
  • Sic Bo
  • Pai Gow Poker
  • 3-Card Poker
  • Cyberstud Poker
  • Casino War
  • American Roulette
  • European Roulette
  • European Roulette Gold
  • European Roulette Gold High Limit
  • European Roulette Gold VIP
  • French Roulette
  • French Roulette Gold
  • French Roulette Gold VIP
  • Multi-player Roulette
  • Multi Wheel European Roulette Gold
  • Progressive Roulette Royale
  • Bank Buster Roulette
  • Premier Roulette
  • Premier Roulette Diamond Edition

Blackjack Games

I’ve separated JackpotCity Casino’s list of blackjack games, because it’s notable how many variations are available. If you’re a blackjack player, you can play almost any version of blackjack you prefer.
The list includes Atlantic City Blackjack, which has a return-to-player of 99.74%. You can play European Blackjack Gold or High Streak Euro Blackjack, which have RTPs in the 99.60% to 99.65% range.
If you study the basic strategy charts for those blackjack variants in order to receive the optimal house edge, you can stretch your bankroll at Jackpot City Casino blackjack like few other online casinos. Sign up today to try JackpotCity Casino’s blackjack games.
  • Atlantic City Blackjack Gold
  • Bonus Blackjack Gold
  • Double Exposure Blackjack Gold
  • High Streak European Blackjack Gold
  • Big 5 Blackjack Gold
  • Big 5 Blackjack Multi Hand Gold
  • Blackjack Multihand
  • European Blackjack Gold
  • Hi/Lo 13 European Blackjack Gold
  • Premier Hi/Lo 13 Euro Blackjack Gold
  • Spanish 21 Blackjack
  • Multi-Hand Spanish 21 Blackjack Gold
  • Multi-and Vegas Downtown Blackjack Gold
  • High Stakes Blackjack
  • High Stakes Blackjack Gold
  • Multi Hand Atlantic City Blackjack Gold
  • Multi Hand Atlantic City Blackjack Gold VIP
  • Multi Hand European Black Jack Gold Series
  • Multiplayer Blackjack
  • Multiplayer Blackjack Gold
  • Premier Multi Hand European Blackjack Gold
  • Premier High Streak Euro Blackjack Gold

Video Poker

Blackjack City Casino’s video poker selection includes the essential video poker games, including Jacks or Better, Deuces Wild, and All Aces. All Aces is the version of video poker not included in the wagering requirements, meaning All Aces is considered quite advantageous for the player. Once again, you’ll need to study All Aces video poker strategy charts to optimize your play.
  • All Aces Poker
  • Jacks or Better Video Poker
  • Aces and Faces Poker
  • Deuces Wild Poker
  • Tens or Better Poker
  • Poker Pursuit
  • Double Double Bonus Poker
  • All American

Video Slots

Microgaming online casinos tend to have a huge number of 3-reel, 5-reel, and even 7-reel video slots. Jackpot City Casino is no different. JackpotCity contains the best progressive video slots from Microgaming and licensed slot machines.
JackpotCity Casino also has popular real money online slots like Break da Bank, Lotsaloot, and Rhyming Reels — which all have produced whole series of games, due to their popularity with fans.
Online slots fans can spend a lifetime trying out JackpotCity Casino slots, so get started today.
  • Mega Moolah (Progressive)
  • Major Millions (Progressive)
  • Treasure Nile (Progressive)
  • The Dark Knight (Progressive)
  • The Lord of the Rings (Progressive)
  • Terminator 2
  • Bridesmaids
  • Tomb Raider
  • Jurassic Park
  • Girls with Guns: Jungle Heat
  • Break da Bank
  • Couch Potato
  • Halloweenies
  • Karaoke Party
  • Bridezilla
  • Dino Mite
  • Forbidden Throne
  • Kathmandu
  • Hexaline
  • Lotsaloot
  • Rhyming Reels
  • Wheel of Wealth

Specialty Games

Specialty games is a catch-all category for the games you might not find in a brick-and-mortar casino. The list includes lottery and raffle-style games like real money keno. It also includes arcade games, including what casinos sometimes call “amusement with prizes”.
JackpotCity Casino has examples of lotto games and arcade games. The site also has games based on Ludo, a cross-and-circle game which is similar to Parcheesi (India: Pachisi) or Sorry.
Several are excellent mini-games for bettors who enjoy poker or sports betting.
  • Keno
  • Crown and Anchor
  • Spingo
  • Three-Wheeler
  • Ballistic Bingo
  • 75-Ball Bingo
  • 75-Ball Bingo (Swedish Variant)
  • 90-Ball Bingo
  • Boxing Bet (Ludo)
  • Cash Matrix (Ludo)
  • Cops and Robbers (Amusement with Prizes)
  • Flip Card (Scratch Game)
  • Fruitopia (Bingo Mini Game)
  • Lady Luxor (Amusement with Prizes)
  • Pharaoh’s Gold (Bingo Mini Game)
  • Roulette Stax (Amusement with Prizes)
  • Scratch Card (Scratch Game)
  • Slots-n-Robbers (Bingo Mini Game)
  • Spot Kick (Ludo)
  • Touchdown Glory (Ludo)
  • Vegas Vega (Bingo Mini Game)
>> Get Free Credits Now >>

Conclusion

Jackpot City Casino has a huge selection of games, so any online casino bettor should be satisfied. Online slots players have hundreds of options, including some of the biggest progressive jackpot slots on the Internet. Those who like licensed slots can play world famous games, while old school players who like 3-reel classics should be satisfied. Table game players should be thrilled with the selection, especially if they play Roulette or Blackjack. The video poker category leaves a little something to be desired, but all the essential video poker games are available. The specialty games list is full of surprises. The VIP player rewards program provides big cashback bonuses and rewards points with several advantages.
Jackpot City Casino is one of our recommended online casinos, so sign up, deposit, and play at Jackpot City casino to enjoy hundreds of slots and all the top table games. Whether you enjoy online or live dealer casino games, Jackpot City Casino is your choice. And if you’ve never tried Evolution Gaming live dealer games, sign up and test your skill at one of Jackpot City Casino’s great live dealer tables.
submitted by freespinsmobile to u/freespinsmobile [link] [comments]

Options to get/donate bitcoins

I've seen people mentioned coinbase in other posts, so I tried signing up, but it wants me to upload photo ID and stuff, which I don't want to. What other options are there?
submitted by neRok00 to NFL2go [link] [comments]

Survivors of market disasters: In this disaster, some people actually made money

There is no need to repeat the tragic market. Various historical figures are present, and they all reveal a signal: this disaster is like an earthquake with no warning signs. The victims are everywhere, and the survival is a fluke.
But in this disaster, there are still people who make money.
If you still have the impression, on August 23 of last year, there was a problem with Amazon AWS 'server in Japan, which caused the products using the region's services to be affected to varying degrees, including the cryptocurrency trading platform. After discovering a problem with Binance using AWS, the user's deposit and withdrawal were suspended, but the trading platform using the Binance Quotation API failed to take timely measures, resulting in loopholes in market makers' strategies.
That day, while Bitcoin was still steadily maintained at 10,000 USD, some users bought Bitcoin at a unit price of 0.32 USD, and when there was almost no fluctuation in the market, they used the mistake of the server to add western food for the night. A bottle of champagne.
In this disaster after 5 months, some people still use the environment to find a way to survive.
Ethereum 0 dollar purchase?
A $ 0 purchase of Ethereum happened on March 13. The market plummeted, many mortgagors' positions were exploded, and ETH fell from $ 180 to less than $ 100 without resistance. The decentralized Defi market that depends on the value of ETH is naturally not immune, such as the MakerDAO platform. MakerDAO's borrowing logic is that users over-collateralize ETH to lend USD stablecoin DAI, but when the value of ETH fell rapidly, a large number of loans fell below the threshold and the system had to be liquidated. In other words, the user's loan was not repaid. Mortgage of ETH is also not available.
So MakerDAO has a bad debt, the amount exceeds USD 4 million. In order to repay this bad debt, MakerDAO chooses to auction the collateral, that is, ETH, BAT, etc., and uses the stable currency DAI to bid. They need to use the auction proceeds to obtain repay loan.
Under normal circumstances, such auctions are not too accidental. The feeding system reports the current price of ETH, and the bidders will probably trade at a price slightly lower than the market price.
However, the background of this auction is the market's plunge. The transaction caused investors to intensive operations, which blocked the Ethereum network. It takes far more than usual gas fees to allow the miners to confirm the transfer as soon as possible.
According to the browser, on the morning of the 13th, if only 44 gwei is used, the transfer confirmation time on the Ethereum network will take 72958 seconds, which is 20 hours.
The MakerDAO debt auction on the Ethereum network has also been affected. The blockage of the network has prevented bidders with low gas costs from bidding in time, which caused participants to bid 0 DAI / ETH to drop the hammer.
It can also be seen from the transaction records that the auction of 0 DAI was indeed successful. These lucky bidders only paid a transfer fee of US $ 1 and transferred 0 amount to obtain an ETH worth US $ 122 at the time.
These people are undoubtedly fortunate. The external environment helped them to become the only game participants. The exchange of $ 1 for $ 120 and a profit of 11900% was much higher than the odds of players who risked bottom-swinging in fluctuations.
However, from another perspective, MakerDAO's auction is to use the DAI obtained from the auction to pay off debts. However, due to network congestion, this situation has caused several free gifts, and MakerDAO's debt repayment is even worse.
Pick up goods by luck
If it is said that MakerDAO launches the auction, it is a helpless action of the team under extreme conditions. Bidders still need a bit of technical barriers to participate, but there is nothing to worry about, and there is almost no difficulty and cost.
On the evening of March 12, investors discovered that the LINK / USDT trading pair of the Binance trading platform experienced a short-term flash collapse and once fell to the bottom 0.0001 USD. What's going on?
Twitter netizens then asked Zhao Changpeng about the matter, and the latter's response was a shock. It turned out that someone had already launched the LINK trading pair as early as Binance, that is, on January 16 last year, a low was hung within 8 seconds after the real-time trading was opened. Price list, but it has not been closed because no fool will sell it at this price.
Unexpectedly, more than a year later, this pending order was sold "strangely". "At that time we had no price range restrictions. We will not cancel user orders." Zhao Changpeng said that the platform will not deny this order because the operation is completely reasonable.
It will not be rolled back for various reasons. In other words, even if LINK has experienced a large decline recently, at the current price of 2.3 US dollars, the profit of this transaction will exceed 2 million US dollars. US dollars, then he instantly won nearly 5 million US dollars.
The cost of 100 dollars, the income of 2.4 million dollars, a real profit.
In fact, similar examples of this kind of luck are not rare in the crypto industry. Except for Binance and the previous examples, BitMex and OKEx have also experienced similar situations, and more than once.
For example, on December 6, 2017, Binance's XRP / BTC trading pair experienced a breakdown of the list. In a very short period of time, the XRP price was oversold to 0.0000002 BTC, which is basically negligible. On January 29, 2018, the price of the ADA contract on BitMEX also fell to 0.00000005 US dollars, which was also nearly 0; another trading platform, OKEx, also saw a large amount of 0.002 USD on January 14, 2018. Case, according to the official statement at that time, "a certain trader" quickly sold a large amount of ETH through market orders within 12 minutes. Interestingly, at the time, some people analyzed that "a certain trader" was actually an official market-making robot, and "a large amount" of 100 million Ethereum was eventually sold for 20 dollars.
However, for ordinary people, if you want to encounter this kind of opportunity for leak detection, unless you are bored and place an order in advance, such a price is fleeting, and you ca n’t seize the opportunity simply by hand speed. In fact, at present, many trading platforms have actually adopted corresponding price amplitude filters, which specify the maximum / minimum price range of pending order prices. Oolong trading is very rare. Even if luck hits and catches up, it is very likely that the platform will intervene and the transaction will be rolled back. This situation has not happened before.
Only this time, the trader who had placed an order on Binance for more than a year, even if he successfully leaked and successfully withdrew the coin, it can only be said that he hit the Grand Canal.
Safe moving of bricks
Buying a certain kind of token on a crypto trading platform, and then selling the token to another trading platform, earning the price difference is a moving brick in the crypto circle. Moving bricks has been an arbitrage behavior since the birth of the transaction. It belongs to a very old business. Arthur, the founder of BitMex, who now operates a trading platform, and Xu Mingxing of OKEx, were once members of the army of moving bricks. . This kind of brick moving was the most prosperous at the end of 2017. At that time, trading platforms such as Bithumb in South Korea also called the "Kimchi premium" due to the price difference between other platforms. Moving bricks is a kind of risk-free arbitrage. Players use energy to gain profits, although the single profit is not much. However, with the maturity of trading robots and quantitative trading teams, the spread of tokens between multiple regions or platforms is often wiped out in a matter of seconds. Therefore, the profit margin of manually moving bricks is now very small.
Of course, it is not to say that there is no opportunity. Such an opportunity to make money is indeed hidden under the volatile market.
"Buy at a low price and sell at a high price, this is simply the most secure way to make money in a plunging market!" Investors are excited about cryptography. Starting at 6:30 pm on March 12, cryptocurrencies have experienced sharp fluctuations, while Binance and Huobi When the bitcoin spread between the three trading platforms and OKEx was the largest, it even reached more than 700 US dollars. The discerning player quickly discovered the opportunity, "For half an hour, I made more than 10,000 with a principal of 20,000 yuan. Such an opportunity is usually not available."
Buy and sell orders executed by the above investors at almost the same time, with a spread of nearly $ 450
When it comes to moving bricks, time is money. It is definitely too late to shuttle between multiple trading platforms. Many investors have now transferred the "battlefield" to the platform that focuses on aggregated trading. "The aggregated trading platform integrates the depth of multiple platforms. As long as there is a price difference between supported platforms, users only use One account can be bought and sold on multiple platforms, and it can be operated in a few seconds. "Wu Ling, who seized the opportunity from the extreme market in these two days, made nearly 50,000 by moving bricks in just a few hours. Yuan, the principal is no more than tens of thousands of yuan.
It is understood that there are already multiple platforms targeting the aggregate trading business on the market, and the opportunity to move bricks does not often appear, unless similar to the extreme market appearing in the past few days, or some unique tokens, there may be soaring and plunging. Opportunities, as a whole, are not met a few times a year, and they are fleeting.
However, whether it is MakerDAO auctions, ultra-low-priced pending order transactions, or arbitrage moving bricks under the new situation, these opportunities to make money are actually small probability and cannot be used as conventional investment methods.
These seemingly easy profits are in the end a few people. Many people are trapped in extreme quotes in stuns. Most investors have no assets left on the trading platform overnight.
Maybe this also makes many investors lose confidence in the industry, but in fact, in the face of such a market, after finishing our mood, we are more learning from changes.
Learn the reasons for this disaster, learn the logic of the main control panel, learn what signals were ignored before the disaster, and prepare for the next time. At the same time, we can also see the development of the industry. For example, when all centralized trading platforms are down, DEX can still be implemented despite various problems.
I hope that everyone still has confidence in the blockchain and cryptocurrency industries. Finally, I would like to remind everyone that the recent market changes are unpredictable. Please pay attention to risks and exercise caution.
submitted by FmzQuant to u/FmzQuant [link] [comments]

Searching for the Unicorn Cryptocurrency

Searching for the Unicorn Cryptocurrency
For someone first starting out as a cryptocurrency investor, finding a trustworthy manual for screening a cryptocurrency’s merits is nonexistent as we are still in the early, Wild West days of the cryptocurrency market. One would need to become deeply familiar with the inner workings of blockchain to be able to perform the bare minimum due diligence.
One might believe, over time, that finding the perfect cryptocurrency may be nothing short of futile. If a cryptocurrency purports infinite scalability, then it is probably either lightweight with limited features or it is highly centralized among a limited number of nodes that perform consensus services especially Proof of Stake or Delegated Proof of Stake. Similarly, a cryptocurrency that purports comprehensive privacy may have technical obstacles to overcome if it aims to expand its applications such as in smart contracts. The bottom line is that it is extremely difficult for a cryptocurrency to have all important features jam-packed into itself.
The cryptocurrency space is stuck in the era of the “dial-up internet” in a manner of speaking. Currently blockchain can’t scale – not without certain tradeoffs – and it hasn’t fully resolved certain intractable issues such as user-unfriendly long addresses and how the blockchain size is forever increasing to name two.
In other words, we haven’t found the ultimate cryptocurrency. That is, we haven’t found the mystical unicorn cryptocurrency that ushers the era of decentralization while eschewing all the limitations of traditional blockchain systems.
“But wait – what about Ethereum once it implements sharding?”
“Wouldn’t IOTA be able to scale infinitely with smart contracts through its Qubic offering?”
“Isn’t Dash capable of having privacy, smart contracts, and instantaneous transactions?”
Those thoughts and comments may come from cryptocurrency investors who have done their research. It is natural for the informed investors to invest in projects that are believed to bring cutting edge technological transformation to blockchain. Sooner or later, the sinking realization will hit that any variation of the current blockchain technology will always likely have certain limitations.
Let us pretend that there indeed exists a unicorn cryptocurrency somewhere that may or may not be here yet. What would it look like, exactly? Let us set the 5 criteria of the unicorn cryptocurrency:
Unicorn Criteria
(1) Perfectly solves the blockchain trilemma:
o Infinite scalability
o Full security
o Full decentralization
(2) Zero or minimal transaction fee
(3) Full privacy
(4) Full smart contract capabilities
(5) Fair distribution and fair governance
For each of the above 5 criteria, there would not be any middle ground. For example, a cryptocurrency with just an in-protocol mixer would not be considered as having full privacy. As another example, an Initial Coin Offering (ICO) may possibly violate criterion (5) since with an ICO the distribution and governance are often heavily favored towards an oligarchy – this in turn would defy the spirit of decentralization that Bitcoin was found on.
There is no cryptocurrency currently that fits the above profile of the unicorn cryptocurrency. Let us examine an arbitrary list of highly hyped cryptocurrencies that meet the above list at least partially. The following list is by no means comprehensive but may be a sufficient sampling of various blockchain implementations:
Bitcoin (BTC)
Bitcoin is the very first and the best known cryptocurrency that started it all. While Bitcoin is generally considered extremely secure, it suffers from mining centralization to a degree. Bitcoin is not anonymous, lacks smart contracts, and most worrisomely, can only do about 7 transactions per seconds (TPS). Bitcoin is not the unicorn notwithstanding all the Bitcoin maximalists.
Ethereum (ETH)
Ethereum is widely considered the gold standard of smart contracts aside from its scalability problem. Sharding as part of Casper’s release is generally considered to be the solution to Ethereum’s scalability problem.
The goal of sharding is to split up validating responsibilities among various groups or shards. Ethereum’s sharding comes down to duplicating the existing blockchain architecture and sharing a token. This does not solve the core issue and simply kicks the can further down the road. After all, full nodes still need to exist one way or another.
Ethereum’s blockchain size problem is also an issue as will be explained more later in this article.
As a result, Ethereum is not the unicorn due to its incomplete approach to scalability and, to a degree, security.
Dash
Dash’s masternodes are widely considered to be centralized due to their high funding requirements, and there are accounts of a pre-mine in the beginning. Dash is not the unicorn due to its questionable decentralization.
Nano
Nano boasts rightfully for its instant, free transactions. But it lacks smart contracts and privacy, and it may be exposed to well orchestrated DDOS attacks. Therefore, it goes without saying that Nano is not the unicorn.
EOS
While EOS claims to execute millions of transactions per seconds, a quick glance reveals centralized parameters with 21 nodes and a questionable governance system. Therefore, EOS fails to achieve the unicorn status.
Monero (XMR)
One of the best known and respected privacy coins, Monero lacks smart contracts and may fall short of infinite scalability due to CryptoNote’s design. The unicorn rank is out of Monero’s reach.
IOTA
IOTA’s scalability is based on the number of transactions the network processes, and so its supposedly infinite scalability would fluctuate and is subject to the whims of the underlying transactions. While IOTA’s scalability approach is innovative and may work in the long term, it should be reminded that the unicorn cryptocurrency has no middle ground. The unicorn cryptocurrency would be expected to scale infinitely on a consistent basis from the beginning.
In addition, IOTA’s Masked Authenticated Messaging (MAM) feature does not bring privacy to the masses in a highly convenient manner. Consequently, the unicorn is not found with IOTA.

PascalCoin as a Candidate for the Unicorn Cryptocurrency
Please allow me to present a candidate for the cryptocurrency unicorn: PascalCoin.
According to the website, PascalCoin claims the following:
“PascalCoin is an instant, zero-fee, infinitely scalable, and decentralized cryptocurrency with advanced privacy and smart contract capabilities. Enabled by the SafeBox technology to become the world’s first blockchain independent of historical operations, PascalCoin possesses unlimited potential.”
The above summary is a mouthful to be sure, but let’s take a deep dive on how PascalCoin innovates with the SafeBox and more. Before we do this, I encourage you to first become acquainted with PascalCoin by watching the following video introduction:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=4&v=F25UU-0W9Dk
The rest of this section will be split into 10 parts in order to illustrate most of the notable features of PascalCoin. Naturally, let’s start off with the SafeBox.
Part #1: The SafeBox
Unlike traditional UTXO-based cryptocurrencies in which the blockchain records the specifics of each transaction (address, sender address, amount of funds transferred, etc.), the blockchain in PascalCoin is only used to mutate the SafeBox. The SafeBox is a separate but equivalent cryptographic data structure that snapshots account balances. PascalCoin’s blockchain is comparable to a machine that feeds the most important data – namely, the state of an account – into the SafeBox. Any node can still independently compute and verify the cumulative Proof-of-Work required to construct the SafeBox.
The PascalCoin whitepaper elegantly highlights the unique historical independence that the SafeBox possesses:
“While there are approaches that cryptocurrencies could use such as pruning, warp-sync, "finality checkpoints", UTXO-snapshotting, etc, there is a fundamental difference with PascalCoin. Their new nodes can only prove they are on most-work-chain using the infinite history whereas in PascalCoin, new nodes can prove they are on the most-work chain without the infinite history.”
Some cryptocurrency old-timers might instinctively balk at the idea of full nodes eschewing the entire history for security, but such a reaction would showcase a lack of understanding on what the SafeBox really does.
A concrete example would go a long way to best illustrate what the SafeBox does. Let’s say I input the following operations in my calculator:
5 * 5 – 10 / 2 + 5
It does not take a genius to calculate the answer, 25. Now, the expression “5 \ 5 – 10 / 2 + 5”* would be forever imbued on a traditional blockchain’s history. But the SafeBox begs to differ. It says that the expression “5 \ 5 – 10 / 2 + 5”* should instead be simply “25” so as preserve simplicity, time, and space. In other words, the SafeBox simply preserves the account balance.
But some might still be unsatisfied and claim that if one cannot trace the series of operations (transactions) that lead to the final number (balance) of 25, the blockchain is inherently insecure.
Here are four important security aspects of the SafeBox that some people fail to realize:
(1) SafeBox Follows the Longest Chain of Proof-of-Work
The SafeBox mutates itself per 100 blocks. Each new SafeBox mutation must reference both to the previous SafeBox mutation and the preceding 100 blocks in order to be valid, and the resultant hash of the new mutated SafeBox must then be referenced by each of the new subsequent blocks, and the process repeats itself forever.
The fact that each new SafeBox mutation must reference to the previous SafeBox mutation is comparable to relying on the entire history. This is because the previous SafeBox mutation encapsulates the result of cumulative entire history except for the 100 blocks which is why each new SafeBox mutation requires both the previous SafeBox mutation and the preceding 100 blocks.
So in a sense, there is a single interconnected chain of inflows and outflows, supported by Byzantine Proof-of-Work consensus, instead of the entire history of transactions.
More concretely, the SafeBox follows the path of the longest chain of Proof-of-Work simply by design, and is thus cryptographically equivalent to the entire history even without tracing specific operations in the past. If the chain is rolled back with a 51% attack, only the attacker’s own account(s) in the SafeBox can be manipulated as is explained in the next part.
(2) A 51% Attack on PascalCoin Functions the Same as Others
A 51% attack on PascalCoin would work in a similar way as with other Proof-of-Work cryptocurrencies. An attacker cannot modify a transaction in the past without affecting the current SafeBox hash which is accepted by all honest nodes.
Someone might claim that if you roll back all the current blocks plus the 100 blocks prior to the SafeBox’s mutation, one could create a forged SafeBox with different balances for all accounts. This would be incorrect as one would be able to manipulate only his or her own account(s) in the SafeBox with a 51% attack – just as is the case with other UTXO cryptocurrencies. The SafeBox stores the balances of all accounts which are in turn irreversibly linked only to their respective owners’ private keys.
(3) One Could Preserve the Entire History of the PascalCoin Blockchain
No blockchain data in PascalCoin is ever deleted even in the presence of the SafeBox. Since the SafeBox is cryptographically equivalent to a full node with the entire history as explained above, PascalCoin full nodes are not expected to contain infinite history. But for whatever reason(s) one may have, one could still keep all the PascalCoin blockchain history as well along with the SafeBox as an option even though it would be redundant.
Without storing the entire history of the PascalCoin blockchain, you can still trace the specific operations of the 100 blocks prior to when the SafeBox absorbs and reflects the net result (a single balance for each account) from those 100 blocks. But if you’re interested in tracing operations over a longer period in the past – as redundant as that may be – you’d have the option to do so by storing the entire history of the PascalCoin blockchain.
(4) The SafeBox is Equivalent to the Entire Blockchain History
Some skeptics may ask this question: “What if the SafeBox is forever lost? How would you be able to verify your accounts?” Asking this question is tantamount to asking to what would happen to Bitcoin if all of its entire history was erased. The result would be chaos, of course, but the SafeBox is still in line with the general security model of a traditional blockchain with respect to black swans.
Now that we know the security of the SafeBox is not compromised, what are the implications of this new blockchain paradigm? A colorful illustration as follows still wouldn’t do justice to the subtle revolution that the SafeBox ushers. The automobiles we see on the street are the cookie-and-butter representation of traditional blockchain systems. The SafeBox, on the other hand, supercharges those traditional cars to become the Transformers from Michael Bay’s films.
The SafeBox is an entirely different blockchain architecture that is impressive in its simplicity and ingenuity. The SafeBox’s design is only the opening act for PascalCoin’s vast nuclear arsenal. If the above was all that PascalCoin offers, it still wouldn’t come close to achieving the unicorn status but luckily, we have just scratched the surface. Please keep on reading on if you want to learn how PascalCoin is going to shatter the cryptocurrency industry into pieces. Buckle down as this is going to be a long read as we explore further about the SafeBox’s implications.
Part #2: 0-Confirmation Transactions
To begin, 0-confirmation transactions are secure in PascalCoin thanks to the SafeBox.
The following paraphrases an explanation of PascalCoin’s 0-confirmations from the whitepaper:
“Since PascalCoin is not a UTXO-based currency but rather a State-based currency thanks to the SafeBox, the security guarantee of 0-confirmation transactions are much stronger than in UTXO-based currencies. For example, in Bitcoin if a merchant accepts a 0-confirmation transaction for a coffee, the buyer can simply roll that transaction back after receiving the coffee but before the transaction is confirmed in a block. The way the buyer does this is by re-spending those UTXOs to himself in a new transaction (with a higher fee) thus invalidating them for the merchant. In PascalCoin, this is virtually impossible since the buyer's transaction to the merchant is simply a delta-operation to debit/credit a quantity from/to accounts respectively. The buyer is unable to erase or pre-empt this two-sided, debit/credit-based transaction from the network’s pending pool until it either enters a block for confirmation or is discarded with respect to both sender and receiver ends. If the buyer tries to double-spend the coffee funds after receiving the coffee but before they clear, the double-spend transaction will not propagate the network since nodes cannot propagate a double-spending transaction thanks to the debit/credit nature of the transaction. A UTXO-based transaction is initially one-sided before confirmation and therefore is more exposed to one-sided malicious schemes of double spending.”
Phew, that explanation was technical but it had to be done. In summary, PascalCoin possesses the only secure 0-confirmation transactions in the cryptocurrency industry, and it goes without saying that this means PascalCoin is extremely fast. In fact, PascalCoin is capable of 72,000 TPS even prior to any additional extensive optimizations down the road. In other words, PascalCoin is as instant as it gets and gives Nano a run for its money.
Part #3: Zero Fee
Let’s circle back to our discussion of PascalCoin’s 0-confirmation capability. Here’s a little fun magical twist to PascalCoin’s 0-confirmation magic: 0-confirmation transactions are zero-fee. As in you don’t pay a single cent in fee for each 0-confirmation! There is just a tiny downside: if you create a second transaction in a 5-minute block window then you’d need to pay a minimal fee. Imagine using Nano but with a significantly stronger anti-DDOS protection for spam! But there shouldn’t be any complaint as this fee would amount to 0.0001 Pascal or $0.00002 based on the current price of a Pascal at the time of this writing.
So, how come the fee for blazingly fast transactions is nonexistent? This is where the magic of the SafeBox arises in three ways:
(1) PascalCoin possesses the secure 0-confirmation feature as discussed above that enables this speed.
(2) There is no fee bidding competition of transaction priority typical in UTXO cryptocurrencies since, once again, PascalCoin operates on secure 0-confirmations.
(3) There is no fee incentive needed to run full nodes on behalf of the network’s security beyond the consensus rewards.
Part #4: Blockchain Size
Let’s expand more on the third point above, using Ethereum as an example. Since Ethereum’s launch in 2015, its full blockchain size is currently around 2 TB, give or take, but let’s just say its blockchain size is 100 GB for now to avoid offending the Ethereum elitists who insist there are different types of full nodes that are lighter. Whoever runs Ethereum’s full nodes would expect storage fees on top of the typical consensus fees as it takes significant resources to shoulder Ethereum’s full blockchain size and in turn secure the network. What if I told you that PascalCoin’s full blockchain size will never exceed few GBs after thousands of years? That is just what the SafeBox enables PascalCoin to do so. It is estimated that by 2072, PascalCoin’s full nodes will only be 6 GB which is low enough not to warrant any fee incentives for hosting full nodes. Remember, the SafeBox is an ultra-light cryptographic data structure that is cryptographically equivalent to a blockchain with the entire transaction history. In other words, the SafeBox is a compact spreadsheet of all account balances that functions as PascalCoin’s full node!
Not only does the SafeBox’s infinitesimal memory size helps to reduce transaction fees by phasing out any storage fees, but it also paves the way for true decentralization. It would be trivial for every PascalCoin user to opt a full node in the form of a wallet. This is extreme decentralization at its finest since the majority of users of other cryptocurrencies ditch full nodes due to their burdensome sizes. It is naïve to believe that storage costs would reduce enough to the point where hosting full nodes are trivial. Take a look at the following chart outlining the trend of storage cost.

* https://www.backblaze.com/blog/hard-drive-cost-per-gigabyte/
As we can see, storage costs continue to decrease but the descent is slowing down as is the norm with technological improvements. In the meantime, blockchain sizes of other cryptocurrencies are increasing linearly or, in the case of smart contract engines like Ethereum, parabolically. Imagine a cryptocurrency smart contract engine like Ethereum garnering worldwide adoption; how do you think Ethereum’s size would look like in the far future based on the following chart?


https://i.redd.it/k57nimdjmo621.png

Ethereum’s future blockchain size is not looking pretty in terms of sustainable security. Sharding is not a fix for this issue since there still needs to be full nodes but that is a different topic for another time.
It is astonishing that the cryptocurrency community as a whole has passively accepted this forever-expanding-blockchain-size problem as an inescapable fate.
PascalCoin is the only cryptocurrency that has fully escaped the death vortex of forever expanding blockchain size. Its blockchain size wouldn’t exceed 10 GB even after many hundreds of years of worldwide adoption. Ethereum’s blockchain size after hundreds of years of worldwide adoption would make fine comedy.
Part #5: Simple, Short, and Ordinal Addresses
Remember how the SafeBox works by snapshotting all account balances? As it turns out, the account address system is almost as cool as the SafeBox itself.
Imagine yourself in this situation: on a very hot and sunny day, you’re wandering down the street across from your house and ran into a lemonade stand – the old-fashioned kind without any QR code or credit card terminal. The kid across you is selling a lemonade cup for 1 Pascal with a poster outlining the payment address as 5471-55. You flip out your phone and click “Send” with 1 Pascal to the address 5471-55; viola, exactly one second later you’re drinking your lemonade without paying a cent for the transaction fee!
The last thing one wants to do is to figure out how to copy/paste to, say, the following address 1BoatSLRHtKNngkdXEeobR76b53LETtpyT on the spot wouldn’t it? Gone are the obnoxiously long addresses that plague all cryptocurrencies. The days of those unreadable addresses will be long gone – it has to be if blockchain is to innovate itself for the general public. EOS has a similar feature for readable addresses but in a very limited manner in comparison, and nicknames attached to addresses in GUIs don’t count since blockchain-wide compatibility wouldn’t hold.
Not only does PascalCoin has the neat feature of having addresses (called PASAs) that amount to up to 6 or 7 digits, but PascalCoin can also incorporate in-protocol address naming as opposed to GUI address nicknames. Suppose I want to order something from Amazon using Pascal; I simply search the word “Amazon” then the corresponding account number shows up. Pretty neat, right?
The astute reader may gather that PascalCoin’s address system makes it necessary to commoditize addresses, and he/she would be correct. Some view this as a weakness; part #10 later in this segment addresses this incorrect perception.
Part #6: Privacy
As if the above wasn’t enough, here’s another secret that PascalCoin has: it is a full-blown privacy coin. It uses two separate foundations to achieve comprehensive anonymity: in-protocol mixer for transfer amounts and zn-SNARKs for private balances. The former has been implemented and the latter is on the roadmap. Both the 0-confirmation transaction and the negligible transaction fee would make PascalCoin the most scalable privacy coin of any other cryptocurrencies pending the zk-SNARKs implementation.
Part #7: Smart Contracts
Next, PascalCoin will take smart contracts to the next level with a layer-2 overlay consensus system that pioneers sidechains and other smart contract implementations.
In formal terms, this layer-2 architecture will facilitate the transfer of data between PASAs which in turn allows clean enveloping of layer-2 protocols inside layer-1 much in the same way that HTTP lives inside TCP.
To summarize:
· The layer-2 consensus method is separate from the layer-1 Proof-of-Work. This layer-2 consensus method is independent and flexible. A sidechain – based on a single encompassing PASA – could apply Proof-of-Stake (POS), Delegated Proof-of-Stake (DPOS), or Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) as the consensus system of its choice.
· Such a layer-2 smart contract platform can be written in any languages.
· Layer-2 sidechains will also provide very strong anonymity since funds are all pooled and keys are not used to unlock them.
· This layer-2 architecture is ingenious in which the computation is separate from layer-2 consensus, in effect removing any bottleneck.
· Horizontal scaling exists in this paradigm as there is no interdependence between smart contracts and states are not managed by slow sidechains.
· Speed and scalability are fully independent of PascalCoin.
One would be able to run the entire global financial system on PascalCoin’s infinitely scalable smart contract platform and it would still scale infinitely. In fact, this layer-2 architecture would be exponentially faster than Ethereum even after its sharding is implemented.
All this is the main focus of PascalCoin’s upcoming version 5 in 2019. A whitepaper add-on for this major upgrade will be released in early 2019.
Part #8: RandomHash Algorithm
Surely there must be some tradeoffs to PascalCoin’s impressive capabilities, you might be asking yourself. One might bring up the fact that PascalCoin’s layer-1 is based on Proof-of-Work and is thus susceptible to mining centralization. This would be a fallacy as PascalCoin has pioneered the very first true ASIC, GPU, and dual-mining resistant algorithm known as RandomHash that obliterates anything that is not CPU based and gives all the power back to solo miners.
Here is the official description of RandomHash:
“RandomHash is a high-level cryptographic hash algorithm that combines other well-known hash primitives in a highly serial manner. The distinguishing feature is that calculations for a nonce are dependent on partial calculations of other nonces, selected at random. This allows a serial hasher (CPU) to re-use these partial calculations in subsequent mining saving 50% or more of the work-load. Parallel hashers (GPU) cannot benefit from this optimization since the optimal nonce-set cannot be pre-calculated as it is determined on-the-fly. As a result, parallel hashers (GPU) are required to perform the full workload for every nonce. Also, the algorithm results in 10x memory bloat for a parallel implementation. In addition to its serial nature, it is branch-heavy and recursive making in optimal for CPU-only mining.”
One might be understandably skeptical of any Proof-of-Work algorithm that solves ASIC and GPU centralization once for all because there have been countless proposals being thrown around for various algorithms since the dawn of Bitcoin. Is RandomHash truly the ASIC & GPU killer that it claims to be?
Herman Schoenfeld, the inventor behind RandomHash, described his algorithm in the following:
“RandomHash offers endless ASIC-design breaking surface due to its use of recursion, hash algo selection, memory hardness and random number generation.
For example, changing how round hash selection is made and/or random number generator algo and/or checksum algo and/or their sequencing will totally break an ASIC design. Conceptually if you can significantly change the structure of the output assembly whilst keeping the high-level algorithm as invariant as possible, the ASIC design will necessarily require proportional restructuring. This results from the fact that ASIC designs mirror the ASM of the algorithm rather than the algorithm itself.”
Polyminer1 (pseudonym), one of the members of the PascalCoin core team who developed RHMiner (official software for mining RandomHash), claimed as follows:
“The design of RandomHash is, to my experience, a genuine innovation. I’ve been 30 years in the field. I’ve rarely been surprised by anything. RandomHash was one of my rare surprises. It’s elegant, simple, and achieves resistance in all fronts.”
PascalCoin may have been the first party to achieve the race of what could possibly be described as the “God algorithm” for Proof-of-Work cryptocurrencies. Look no further than one of Monero’s core developers since 2015, Howard Chu. In September 2018, Howard declared that he has found a solution, called RandomJS, to permanently keep ASICs off the network without repetitive algorithm changes. This solution actually closely mirrors RandomHash’s algorithm. Discussing about his algorithm, Howard asserted that “RandomJS is coming at the problem from a direction that nobody else is.”
Link to Howard Chu’s article on RandomJS:
https://www.coindesk.com/one-musicians-creative-solution-to-drive-asics-off-monero
Yet when Herman was asked about Howard’s approach, he responded:
“Yes, looks like it may work although using Javascript was a bit much. They should’ve just used an assembly subset and generated random ASM programs. In a way, RandomHash does this with its repeated use of random mem-transforms during expansion phase.”
In the end, PascalCoin may have successfully implemented the most revolutionary Proof-of-Work algorithm, one that eclipses Howard’s burgeoning vision, to date that almost nobody knows about. To learn more about RandomHash, refer to the following resources:
RandomHash whitepaper:
https://www.pascalcoin.org/storage/whitepapers/RandomHash_Whitepaper.pdf
Technical proposal for RandomHash:
https://github.com/PascalCoin/PascalCoin/blob/mastePIP/PIP-0009.md
Someone might claim that PascalCoin still suffers from mining centralization after RandomHash, and this is somewhat misleading as will be explained in part #10.
Part #9: Fair Distribution and Governance
Not only does PascalCoin rest on superior technology, but it also has its roots in the correct philosophy of decentralized distribution and governance. There was no ICO or pre-mine, and the developer fund exists as a percentage of mining rewards as voted by the community. This developer fund is 100% governed by a decentralized autonomous organization – currently facilitated by the PascalCoin Foundation – that will eventually be transformed into an autonomous smart contract platform. Not only is the developer fund voted upon by the community, but PascalCoin’s development roadmap is also voted upon the community via the Protocol Improvement Proposals (PIPs).
This decentralized governance also serves an important benefit as a powerful deterrent to unseemly fork wars that befall many cryptocurrencies.
Part #10: Common Misconceptions of PascalCoin
“The branding is terrible”
PascalCoin is currently working very hard on its image and is preparing for several branding and marketing initiatives in the short term. For example, two of the core developers of the PascalCoin recently interviewed with the Fox Business Network. A YouTube replay of this interview will be heavily promoted.
Some people object to the name PascalCoin. First, it’s worth noting that PascalCoin is the name of the project while Pascal is the name of the underlying currency. Secondly, Google and YouTube received excessive criticisms back then in the beginning with their name choices. Look at where those companies are nowadays – surely a somewhat similar situation faces PascalCoin until the name’s familiarity percolates into the public.
“The wallet GUI is terrible”
As the team is run by a small yet extremely dedicated developers, multiple priorities can be challenging to juggle. The lack of funding through an ICO or a pre-mine also makes it challenging to accelerate development. The top priority of the core developers is to continue developing full-time on the groundbreaking technology that PascalCoin offers. In the meantime, an updated and user-friendly wallet GUI has been worked upon for some time and will be released in due time. Rome wasn’t built in one day.
“One would need to purchase a PASA in the first place”
This is a complicated topic since PASAs need to be commoditized by the SafeBox’s design, meaning that PASAs cannot be obtained at no charge to prevent systematic abuse. This raises two seemingly valid concerns:
· As a chicken and egg problem, how would one purchase a PASA using Pascal in the first place if one cannot obtain Pascal without a PASA?
· How would the price of PASAs stay low and affordable in the face of significant demand?
With regards to the chicken and egg problem, there are many ways – some finished and some unfinished – to obtain your first PASA as explained on the “Get Started” page on the PascalCoin website:
https://www.pascalcoin.org/get_started
More importantly, however, is the fact that there are few methods that can get your first PASA for free. The team will also release another method soon in which you could obtain your first PASA for free via a single SMS message. This would probably become by far the simplest and the easiest way to obtain your first PASA for free. There will be more new ways to easily obtain your first PASA for free down the road.
What about ensuring the PASA market at large remains inexpensive and affordable following your first (and probably free) PASA acquisition? This would be achieved in two ways:
· Decentralized governance of the PASA economics per the explanation in the FAQ section on the bottom of the PascalCoin website (https://www.pascalcoin.org/)
· Unlimited and free pseudo-PASAs based on layer-2 in the next version release.
“PascalCoin is still centralized after the release of RandomHash”
Did the implementation of RandomHash from version 4 live up to its promise?
The official goals of RandomHash were as follow:
(1) Implement a GPU & ASIC resistant hash algorithm
(2) Eliminate dual mining
The two goals above were achieved by every possible measure.
Yet a mining pool, Nanopool, was able to regain its hash majority after a significant but a temporary dip.
The official conclusion is that, from a probabilistic viewpoint, solo miners are more profitable than pool miners. However, pool mining is enticing for solo miners who 1) have limited hardware as it ensures a steady income instead of highly profitable but probabilistic income via solo mining, and 2) who prefer convenient software and/or GUI.
What is the next step, then? While the barrier of entry for solo miners has successfully been put down, additional work needs to be done. The PascalCoin team and the community are earnestly investigating additional steps to improve mining decentralization with respect to pool mining specifically to add on top of RandomHash’s successful elimination of GPU, ASIC, and dual-mining dominance.
It is likely that the PascalCoin community will promote the following two initiatives in the near future:
(1) Establish a community-driven, nonprofit mining pool with attractive incentives.
(2) Optimize RHMiner, PascalCoin’s official solo mining software, for performance upgrades.
A single pool dominance is likely short lived once more options emerge for individual CPU miners who want to avoid solo mining for whatever reason(s).
Let us use Bitcoin as an example. Bitcoin mining is dominated by ASICs and mining pools but no single pool is – at the time of this writing – even close on obtaining the hash majority. With CPU solo mining being a feasible option in conjunction with ASIC and GPU mining eradication with RandomHash, the future hash rate distribution of PascalCoin would be far more promising than Bitcoin’s hash rate distribution.
PascalCoin is the Unicorn Cryptocurrency
If you’ve read this far, let’s cut straight to the point: PascalCoin IS the unicorn cryptocurrency.
It is worth noting that PascalCoin is still a young cryptocurrency as it was launched at the end of 2016. This means that many features are still work in progress such as zn-SNARKs, smart contracts, and pool decentralization to name few. However, it appears that all of the unicorn criteria are within PascalCoin’s reach once PascalCoin’s technical roadmap is mostly completed.
Based on this expository on PascalCoin’s technology, there is every reason to believe that PascalCoin is the unicorn cryptocurrency. PascalCoin also solves two fundamental blockchain problems beyond the unicorn criteria that were previously considered unsolvable: blockchain size and simple address system. The SafeBox pushes PascalCoin to the forefront of cryptocurrency zeitgeist since it is a superior solution compared to UTXO, Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), Block Lattice, Tangle, and any other blockchain innovations.


THE UNICORN

Author: Tyler Swob
submitted by Kosass to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

/r/Bitcoin FAQ - Newcomers please read

Welcome to the /Bitcoin Sticky FAQ

You've probably been hearing a lot about Bitcoin recently and are wondering what's the big deal? Most of your questions should be answered by the resources below but if you have additional questions feel free to ask them in the comments.
The following videos are a good starting point for understanding how bitcoin works and a little about its long term potential:
For lots of additional video resources check out the videos wiki page or /BitcoinTV.
Key properties of bitcoin
Additional Bitcoin statistics can be found here. Developer resources can be found here and here. Peer-reviewed research papers can be found here and here. And of course, the whitepaper that started it all :)

Where can I buy bitcoins?

You can buy or sell any amount of bitcoin and there are several easy methods to purchase bitcoin with cash, credit card or bank transfer. Some of the more popular resources are below, more can be found here.
Here is a listing of local ATMs. Also, Lawnmower is also a handy way to make small recurring purchases of bitcoin. If you would like your paycheck auotmatically converted to bitcoin use Cashila or Bitwage.
Note: Bitcoins are valued at whatever market price people are willing to pay for them in balancing act of supply vs demand. Unlike traditional markets, bitcoin markets operate 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. Here are a couple useful sites (bitkoin.io, preev.com) that shows how much various denominations of bitcoin are worth in different currencies. Alternatively you can just Google "1 bitcoin in (your local currency)".

Securing your bitcoins

With bitcoin you can "be your own bank" and personally secure your bitcoins OR you can use third party companies aka "bitcoin banks" which will hold the bitcoins for you.
Note: For increased security, use Two Factor Authentication (2FA) everywhere it is offered, including email!
2FA requires a second confirmation code to access your account, usually from a text message or app, making it much harder for thieves to gain access. Google Authenticator and Authy are the two most popular 2FA services, download links are below. Make sure you create backups of your 2FA codes.
Google Auth Authy
Android Android
iOS iOS

Where can I spend bitcoins?

Comprehensive lists can be found at the Trade FAQ or The Bitcoin Directory, some more commons ones are below.
Store Product
Steam, Disco Melee, HumbleBundle, GreenmanGaming, and Coinplay.io For when you need to get your game on
Microsoft Xbox games, phone apps and software
Spendabit, The Bitcoin Shop, Overstock, Rakuten, DuoSearch and BazaarBay Retail shopping with millions of results
Gyft Gift cards for hundreds of retailers including Amazon, Target, Walmart, Starbucks, Whole Foods, CVS, Lowes, Home Depot, iTunes, Best Buy, Sears, Kohls, eBay, GameStop, etc.
NewEgg, TigerDirect and Dell For all your electronic needs
Cashila, Bitwa.la, Coinbills, Piixpay, Bitbill.eu, Bylls, Coins.ph, Bitrefill, Pey.de, LRoS, Wagepoint, Hyphen.to Bill payment
Foodler and Takeaway Takeout delivered to your door!
Expedia, Cheapair, Lot, Destinia, BTCTrip, Abitsky, SkyTours, Fluege and 9flats For when you need to get away
BoltVM VPS service
Cryptostorm, Mullvad, and PIA VPN services
Namecheap For new domain name registration
Stampnik and GetUSPS Discounted USPS Priority, Express, First-Class mail postage
Reddit Gold Premium membership which can be gifted to others
Coinmap and AirBitz are helpful to find local businesses accepting bitcoins. A good resource for UK residents is at wheretospendbitcoins.co.uk.
There are also lots of charities which accept bitcoin donations, such as Wikipedia, Red Cross, Amnesty International, United Way, ACLU and the EFF. You can find a longer list here.

Merchant Resources

There are several benefits to accepting bitcoin as a payment option if you are a merchant;
If you are interested in accepting bitcoin as a payment method, there are several options available;

Can I mine bitcoin?

Mining bitcoins can be a fun learning experience, but be aware that you will most likely operate at a loss. Newcomers are often advised to stay away from mining unless they are only interested in it as a hobby similar to folding at home. If you want to learn more about mining you can read more here. Still have mining questions? The crew at /BitcoinMining would be happy to help you out.
If you want to contribute to the bitcoin network by hosting the blockchain and propagating transactions you can run a full node using this setup guide. You can view the global node distribution here.

Earning bitcoins

Just like any other form of money, you can also earn bitcoins by being paid to do a job.
You can also earn bitcoins by participating as a market maker to allow users to perform CoinJoin transactions with your bitcoins for a small fee (requires you to already have some bitcoins)

Bitcoin Projects

The following is a short list of ongoing projects that might be worth taking a look at if you are interested in current development in the bitcoin space.
Project Description
Lightning Network, Amiko Pay, and Strawpay Payment channels for network scaling
Blockstream and Drivechain Sidechains
21, Inc. Open source library for the machine payable web
ShapeShift.io Trade between bitcoins and altcoins easily
Open Transactions, Counterparty, Omni, Open Assets, Symbiont and Chain Financial asset platforms
Hivemind and Augur Prediction markets
Mirror Smart contracts
Mediachain Decentralized media library
Tierion and Factom Records & Titles on the blockchain
BitMarkets, DropZone, Beaver and Open Bazaar Decentralized markets
Samourai and Dark Wallet - abandoned Privacy-enhancing wallets
JoinMarket CoinJoin implementation (Increase privacy and/or Earn interest on bitcoin holdings)
Coinffeine and Bitsquare Decentralized bitcoin exchanges
Keybase and Bitrated Identity & Reputation management
Bitmesh and Telehash Mesh networking
JoyStream BitTorrent client with paid seeding
MORPHiS Decentralized, encrypted internet
Storj and Sia Decentralized file storage
Streamium and Faradam Pay in real time for on-demand services
Abra Global P2P money transmitter network
bitSIM PIN secure hardware token between SIM & Phone
Identifi Decentralized address book w/ ratings system
Coinometrics Institutional-level Bitcoin Data & Research
Blocktrail and BitGo Multisig bitcoin API
Bitcore Open source Bitcoin javascript library
Insight Open source blockchain API
Leet Kill your friends and take their money ;)

Tipping

Use ChangeTip.com (/changetip) for tipping people on Facebook, Reddit, Twitter, YouTube, Tumblr, Google+, GitHub, Slack and more! (you can even use custom monikers to tailor your tip to the discussion or add a bit of humor). Read more about ChangeTip at their reddit wiki.

Bitcoin Units

One Bitcoin is quite large (hundreds of £/$/€) so people often deal in smaller units. The most common subunits are listed below:
Unit Symbol Value Info
millibitcoin mBTC 1,000 per bitcoin SI unit for milli i.e. millilitre (mL) or millimetre (mm)
microbitcoin μBTC 1,000,000 per bitcoin SI unit for micro i.e microlitre (μL) or micrometre (μm)
bit bit 1,000,000 per bitcoin Colloquial "slang" term for microbitcoin
satoshi sat 100,000,000 per bitcoin Smallest unit in bitcoin, named after the inventor
For example, assuming an arbitrary exchange rate of $500 for one Bitcoin, a $10 meal would equal:
For more information check out the Bitcoin units wiki.
Still have questions? Feel free to ask in the comments below or stick around for our weekly Mentor Monday thread. If you decide to post a question in /Bitcoin, please use the search bar to see if it has been answered before, and remember to follow the community rules outlined on the sidebar to receive a better response. The mods are busy helping manage our community so please do not message them unless you notice problems with the functionality of the subreddit. A complete list of bitcoin related subreddits can be found here
Note: This is a community created FAQ. If you notice anything missing from the FAQ or that requires clarification you can edit it here and it will be included in the next revision pending approval.
Welcome to the Bitcoin community and the new decentralized economy!
submitted by BinaryResult to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Mapping Out Some Collateral Developments to Blockchain Technology

Mapping Out Some Collateral Developments to Blockchain Technology

https://preview.redd.it/rx58r3mci7a31.png?width=1024&format=png&auto=webp&s=cdfc1136fac75421de5164239dd13b837ce86914
Guest Blogger: Andrew Rossow, Esq.
Every once and while, a new technology comes around that positively impacts innovation in several fields, even some outside of its initially intended sector. Blockchains, more specifically Bitcoin, is increasingly showing the signs of doing the very same.
From the expansion and further development of zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs) to sharding, a seemingly golden age of cryptography, improved privacy, and permissionless financial products have branched out from Bitcoin’s meteoric rise.
ZKPs and a New Era of Privacy
Obviously central to the name “cryptocurrencies,” is the cryptography component that underpins Bitcoin’s transaction scheme and that of the many altcoins. Bitcoin is pseudonymous, which is becoming increasingly clear with the likes of blockchain forensics companies emerging left and right — attracting government support in the process.
However, that realization has led to some fascinating downstream effects in the development of better cryptography.
For example, research into a full-scale implementation of Schnorr Signatures, widely considered to be the best cryptographic signature primitive, recently materialized into a formal proposal for inclusion into Bitcoin. Dubbed, “MuSig,” Schnorr Signatures would confer better scalability and privacy to the legacy cryptocurrency.
But the innovation does not stop there.
Out of the demand for anonymity came altcoins like Monero and ZCash, predicated on novel cryptographic techniques for completely masking the identities of users and the amounts transferred.
For example, Monero, a “CryptoNote Coin,” leverages the power of ring signatures — a technique for obfuscating the originator of a signed digital message that has been around for years but never applied on the scale as it is with Monero.
Researchers even released a new implementation of formalized ring signatures for enhanced privacy, called OmniRing, designed to scale up privacy transactions without the feared “trusted setup.” Similarly, the production of “Bulletproofs” out of the famed Stanford Applied Cryptography Group enhanced the efficiency of privacy-preserving transactions, which have historically been data-heavy.
The concept builds on the notion of ZKPs, which have attracted the nickname of “crypto magic” for being unfathomably complex from a mathematical perspective while furnishing near-complete anonymity.
All of these developments, while built on technologies preceding Bitcoin, have accelerated over the last few years. Even banks, like JP Morgan, are joining in on the fun, building their own implementations of ZKPs for private transactions.
The snowballing innovation in the field of cryptography comes at an opportune time. Once hailed by cypherpunks as the last vestige of hope against a surveillance state, cryptography is a powerful shield against the repeated data malpractice of tech firms and government snooping.
What began as an era of openly sharing on social media platforms, has spun into a complicated mix of wanting social media but without corporations and governments having access to the data — privacy is now at a premium.
Distributed Computing — Scaling Decentralized Networks
Similar to the rise in cryptography over the last several years, there has been an explosion in distributed computing, particularly scaling decentralized networks. Emerging out of the need for public, permissionless blockchain networks (i.e., Ethereum) to scale better, a confluence of efficiency improvements and innovative technologies are seeking to power public blockchains with the same performance level as their centralized counterparts.
For example, the concept of sharding — horizontally partitioning a database — has gained prominence among several platforms, including Ethereum, as a way to enable groups (i.e., shards) of nodes process transactions in parallel. Ethereum’s foray into sharding is known as its Serenity upgrade, which is pending rollout following more extensive research and testing of the underlying concept.
Other projects, like Elrond, are pushing the envelope even farther. Elrond is working on a bleeding-edge form of state sharding known as “Adaptive State Sharding” in conjunction with their secure Proof-of-Stake (PoS) consensus mechanism. Compared to the other forms of sharding, transaction and network, state sharding is the most technically complex and widely considered to have enormous potential in boosting the performance of public blockchains. Elrond implements all three in an ambitious take on scaling decentralized networks.
Take the case of Elrond, whose Testnet is already live, and has reached a peak performance capacity of nearly 12,000 transactions per second (TPS). For context, Ethereum’s current iteration process roughly 15 – 20 TPS.
Sharding, similar to the aforementioned privacy technologies, is not a new concept either. Sharding is prevalent for improving database efficiency and has been around for many years. It is only recently that it began garnering attention in crypto circles as a method to improve the scalability of decentralized networks.
The sheer scale of development of sharding applied to distributed networks is nothing short of impressive so far.
The convergence of technologies like sharding with new consensus designs, like PoS, is sure to usher in a new generation of blockchains, supplemented by better privacy and scalability. It is not surprising that such developments have flown under the radar, as they are highly esoteric, but their downstream advantages for mainstream consumers and app users are promising.
Bitcoin may have birthed a spectacular invention of money, but its collateral effects in the form of distributed computing and cryptography may come to have a more dynamic impact on society than a P2P digital currency.
Andrew L. Rossow is a millennial attorney, law professor, entrepreneur, writer, and speaker on privacy, cybersecurity, A.I., AVR, blockchain, and digital monies. He has written for many outlets, most notably Forbes and HuffPost
Connect with Andrew on LinkedIn
submitted by bolyus21 to CryptoCurrencyTrading [link] [comments]

Mapping Out Some Collateral Developments to Blockchain Technology

Mapping Out Some Collateral Developments to Blockchain Technology

https://preview.redd.it/jxfwqo5sou931.png?width=1024&format=png&auto=webp&s=25f025b3f030e8fefc628bf536f600f2c9689c88
Guest Blogger: Andrew Rossow, Esq.
Every once and while, a new technology comes around that positively impacts innovation in several fields, even some outside of its initially intended sector. Blockchains, more specifically Bitcoin, is increasingly showing the signs of doing the very same.
From the expansion and further development of zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs) to sharding, a seemingly golden age of cryptography, improved privacy, and permissionless financial products have branched out from Bitcoin’s meteoric rise.

ZKPs and a New Era of Privacy

Obviously central to the name “cryptocurrencies,” is the cryptography component that underpins Bitcoin’s transaction scheme and that of the many altcoins. Bitcoin is pseudonymous, which is becoming increasingly clear with the likes of blockchain forensics companies emerging left and right — attracting government support in the process.
However, that realization has led to some fascinating downstream effects in the development of better cryptography.
For example, research into a full-scale implementation of Schnorr Signatures, widely considered to be the best cryptographic signature primitive, recently materialized into a formal proposal for inclusion into Bitcoin. Dubbed, “MuSig,” Schnorr Signatures would confer better scalability and privacy to the legacy cryptocurrency.
But the innovation does not stop there.
Out of the demand for anonymity came altcoins like Monero and ZCash, predicated on novel cryptographic techniques for completely masking the identities of users and the amounts transferred.
For example, Monero, a “CryptoNote Coin,” leverages the power of ring signatures — a technique for obfuscating the originator of a signed digital message that has been around for years but never applied on the scale as it is with Monero.
Researchers even released a new implementation of formalized ring signatures for enhanced privacy, called OmniRing, designed to scale up privacy transactions without the feared “trusted setup.” Similarly, the production of “Bulletproofs” out of the famed Stanford Applied Cryptography Group enhanced the efficiency of privacy-preserving transactions, which have historically been data-heavy.
The concept builds on the notion of ZKPs, which have attracted the nickname of “crypto magic” for being unfathomably complex from a mathematical perspective while furnishing near-complete anonymity.
All of these developments, while built on technologies preceding Bitcoin, have accelerated over the last few years. Even banks, like JP Morgan, are joining in on the fun, building their own implementations of ZKPs for private transactions.
The snowballing innovation in the field of cryptography comes at an opportune time. Once hailed by cypherpunks as the last vestige of hope against a surveillance state, cryptography is a powerful shield against the repeated data malpractice of tech firms and government snooping.
What began as an era of openly sharing on social media platforms, has spun into a complicated mix of wanting social media but without corporations and governments having access to the data — privacy is now at a premium.

Distributed Computing — Scaling Decentralized Networks

Similar to the rise in cryptography over the last several years, there has been an explosion in distributed computing, particularly scaling decentralized networks. Emerging out of the need for public, permissionless blockchain networks (i.e., Ethereum) to scale better, a confluence of efficiency improvements and innovative technologies are seeking to power public blockchains with the same performance level as their centralized counterparts.
For example, the concept of sharding — horizontally partitioning a database — has gained prominence among several platforms, including Ethereum, as a way to enable groups (i.e., shards) of nodes process transactions in parallel. Ethereum’s foray into sharding is known as its Serenity upgrade, which is pending rollout following more extensive research and testing of the underlying concept.
Other projects, like Elrond, are pushing the envelope even farther. Elrond is working on a bleeding-edge form of state sharding known as “Adaptive State Sharding” in conjunction with their secure Proof-of-Stake (PoS) consensus mechanism. Compared to the other forms of sharding, transaction and network, state sharding is the most technically complex and widely considered to have enormous potential in boosting the performance of public blockchains. Elrond implements all three in an ambitious take on scaling decentralized networks.
Take the case of Elrond, whose Testnet is already live, and has reached a peak performance capacity of nearly 12,000 transactions per second (TPS). For context, Ethereum’s current iteration process roughly 15 – 20 TPS.
Sharding, similar to the aforementioned privacy technologies, is not a new concept either. Sharding is prevalent for improving database efficiency and has been around for many years. It is only recently that it began garnering attention in crypto circles as a method to improve the scalability of decentralized networks.
The sheer scale of development of sharding applied to distributed networks is nothing short of impressive so far.
The convergence of technologies like sharding with new consensus designs, like PoS, is sure to usher in a new generation of blockchains, supplemented by better privacy and scalability. It is not surprising that such developments have flown under the radar, as they are highly esoteric, but their downstream advantages for mainstream consumers and app users are promising.
Bitcoin may have birthed a spectacular invention of money, but its collateral effects in the form of distributed computing and cryptography may come to have a more dynamic impact on society than a P2P digital currency.
Andrew L. Rossow is a millennial attorney, law professor, entrepreneur, writer, and speaker on privacy, cybersecurity, A.I., AVR, blockchain, and digital monies. He has written for many outlets, most notably Forbes and HuffPost
Connect with Andrew on LinkedIn
submitted by bolyus21 to CryptoCurrencies [link] [comments]

/r/Bitcoin FAQ - Newcomers please read

Welcome to the /Bitcoin Sticky FAQ

Maybe you're here because you've received a tip on social media, or maybe you've just been hearing a lot recently about Bitcoin and are wondering what the big deal is? The following videos are a good starting point for understanding how bitcoin works and a little bit about its long term potential:
For lots of additional video resources check out the videos wiki page or /BitcoinTV . Peer-reviewed, research papers can be found here.

Where can I buy bitcoins?

You can buy or sell any amount of bitcoin (from as little as $1 worth) and there are several easy methods to purchase bitcoin with cash, credit card or bank account. A good list of exchanges sorted by region can be found on the exchanges wiki here.
Note: Bitcoins are valued at whatever market price people are willing to pay for them in balancing act of supply vs demand. Unlike traditional markets, bitcoin markets operate 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. Here are a couple useful sites [bitkoin.io, preev.com] that shows how much various denominations of bitcoin are worth in different currencies. Alternatively you can just Google "1 bitcoin in (your local currency)".

Where can I spend bitcoins?

Store Product
Microsoft Xbox games, phone apps and software
Spendabit and The Bitcoin Shop Search engines of online retailers accepting bitcoin with millions of results
Overstock and Rakuten Everything under the sun
Gyft Gift cards for hundreds of retailers including Amazon, Target, Walmart, Starbucks, Whole Foods, CVS, Lowes, Home Depot, iTunes, Best Buy, Sears, Kohls, eBay, GameStop, etc.
NewEgg, TigerDirect and Dell For all your electronic needs
Expedia, Cheapair, Destinia and 9flats For when you need to get away
BoltVM, Namecheap, Mullvad and PIA Handy web services
Foodler and Takeaway Takeout delivered to your door!
HumbleBundle, GreenmanGaming, and Coinplay.io For when you need to get your game on
Reddit Gold Premium membership which can be gifted to others
Coinmap and AirBitz are helpful to find local businesses accepting bitcoins. UK residents can find a comprehensive directory of shops, pubs, websites and other places in the UK that accept bitcoins at wheretospendbitcoins.co.uk.
There are also lots of charities which accept bitcoin donations, such as Wikipedia, Red Cross, Amnesty International, United Way, ACLU and the EFF. You can find a longer list here.
Additional resources can also be found at TheBitcoinPage.com

Merchant Resources

There are several benefits to accepting bitcoin as a payment option if you are a merchant;
If you are interested in accepting bitcoin as a payment method, there are several options available;

Can I mine bitcoin?

Mining bitcoins can be a fun learning experience, but be aware that you will most likely operate at a loss. Newcomers are often advised to stay away from mining unless they are only interested in it as a hobby similar to folding at home. If you want to learn more about mining you can read more here. Still have mining questions? The friendly folks at /BitcoinMining would be happy to help you out.
If you want to contribute to the bitcoin network by hosting the blockchain and propagating transactions you can run a full node using this setup guide. You can view the global node distribution here.

Securing your bitcoins

With bitcoin you can "be your own bank" and personally secure your bitcoins OR you can use established companies such as Coinbase and Circle which have secured wallets where they hold the bitcoins for you and provide insurance.
If you prefer to "be your own bank" and have direct control over your coins without having to use a trusted third party, there are many options in the wallets wiki. If you would prefer easy and secure storage without having to learn computer security best practices then a hardware wallet such as the Trezor, Ledger or HW-1 is recommended.
Note: For increased security, use Two Factor Authentication (2FA) everywhere it is offered, including email!
2FA requires a second confirmation code to access your account, usually from a text message or app, making it much harder for thieves to gain access.
Google Authenticator Authy
Android Android
iOS iOS

Earning bitcoins

Just like any other form of money, you can earn bitcoins by working for them. Here are a few resources for bitcoin jobs.

Tipping

Fundraising

You can use Lighthouse to crowdsource fundraising initiatives with bitcoin. It's similar to Kickstarter, but without intermediaries or exorbitant fees. You can participate in project discussions at /LighthouseProjects, and watch the progress of fundraisers at lightlist.io.

Bitcoin Projects

The following is a short list of ongoing projects that might be worth taking a look at if you are interested in current development in the bitcoin space.
Project Description
Lightning Network Payment channels for network scaling
Blockstream Sidechains
Open Transactions, Counterparty, Omni, Open Assets, Symbiont and Chain Financial asset platforms
Augur and Mirror Prediction markets
Factom Records & Titles on the blockchain
Open Bazaar, Provistor and Bitmarket Decentralized free markets
Zerocash, Dark Wallet and Joinmarket Privacy enhancement
ShapeShift.io The easiest way to swap between bitcoin and altcoins
BitShares Decentralized exchange
Keybase and Bitrated Identity & Reputation management
Bitmesh and Telehash Mesh networking
JoyStream BitTorrent client with paid seeding
Maidsafe Decentralized internet
Storj and Sia Decentralized file storage
21e6 Internet of things??
Streamium Decentralized video streaming
Abra Global P2P money transmitter network
bitSIM PIN secure hardware token between SIM & Phone
Identifi Decentralized address book w/ ratings system
Coinometrics Institutional-level Bitcoin Data & Research
Blocktrail Multisig bitcoin API
Copay Open source mulltisig wallet by BitPay
Bitcore Open source javascript library by BitPay
Insight Open source blockchain API by BitPay
Foxtrot Open source routing network from BitPay
La'Zooz Decentralized Ridesharing
Leet Kill your friends and take their money ;)
Lawnmower Spare change into bitcoin

Bitcoin Units

One Bitcoin is quite large (hundreds of £/$/€) so people often deal in smaller units. The most common subunits are listed below:
Unit Symbol Value Info
millibitcoin mBTC 1,000 per bitcoin SI unit for milli i.e. millilitre (mL) or millimetre (mm)
microbitcoin μBTC 1,000,000 per bitcoin SI unit for micro i.e microlitre (μL) or micrometre (μm)
bit bit 1,000,000 per bitcoin Colloquial "slang" term for microbitcoin
satoshi sat 100,000,000 per bitcoin Smallest unit in bitcoin, named after the inventor
For example, assuming an arbitrary exchange rate of $500 for one Bitcoin, a $10 meal would equal:
If you want to use 'bits' exclusively, just remember that there are 100 satoshis in 1 bit, and 1 million bits in one bitcoin. For more information check out the Bitcoin units wiki.
Still have questions? The friendly folks at /BitcoinBeginners would be happy to help you out, or stick around for our weekly Mentor Monday thread. If you decide to post a question in /Bitcoin, please use the search bar to see if it has been answered before, and remember to follow the community rules outlined on the sidebar to receive a better response. The mods are busy helping manage our community so please do not message them unless you notice problems with the functionality of the subreddit. A complete list of bitcoin related subreddits can be found here
Note: This is a community created FAQ. If you notice anything missing from the FAQ or that requires clarification you can edit it here and it will be included in the next revision pending mod approval.
Welcome to the Bitcoin community and the new decentralized economy!
submitted by BashCo to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

In case you missed it: Major Crypto and Blockchain News from the week ending 12/14/2018

Developments in Financial Services

Regulatory Environment

General News


submitted by QuantalyticsResearch to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

/r/Bitcoin FAQ - Newcomers please read

Welcome to the /Bitcoin Sticky FAQ

Maybe you're here because you've received a tip on social media, or maybe you've just been hearing a lot recently about Bitcoin and are wondering what the big deal is? The following videos are a good starting point for understanding how bitcoin works and a little bit about its long term potential:
For lots of additional video resources check out the videos wiki page or /BitcoinTV . Peer-reviewed, research papers can be found here and here. Developer resources can be found here. Lots of Bitcoin statistics can be found here.

Where can I buy bitcoins?

You can buy or sell any amount of bitcoin and there are several easy methods to purchase bitcoin with cash, credit card or bank account. A good list of exchanges sorted by region can be found on the exchanges wiki here.
Note: Bitcoins are valued at whatever market price people are willing to pay for them in balancing act of supply vs demand. Unlike traditional markets, bitcoin markets operate 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. Here are a couple useful sites [bitkoin.io, preev.com] that shows how much various denominations of bitcoin are worth in different currencies. Alternatively you can just Google "1 bitcoin in (your local currency)".

Securing your bitcoins

With bitcoin you can "be your own bank" and personally secure your bitcoins OR you can use established companies which have secured wallets where they hold the bitcoins for you and provide insurance.
Note: For increased security, use Two Factor Authentication (2FA) everywhere it is offered, including email!
2FA requires a second confirmation code to access your account, usually from a text message or app, making it much harder for thieves to gain access. Google Authenticator and Authy are the two most popular 2FA services, download links are below.
Google Authenticator Authy
Android Android
iOS iOS

Tipping

Use ChangeTip.com (/changetip) for tipping people on Facebook, Reddit, Twitter, YouTube, Tumblr, Google+, GitHub, Slack and more! (you can even use custom monikers to tailor your tip to the discussion or add a bit of humor). Read more about ChangeTip at their reddit wiki.
Go to /FreeBits to get a few bits to practice with and then tip them forward. Go to /BitTippers to play games and solve riddles to earn your bits. Don't forget your flair!

Where can I spend bitcoins?

Store Product
Microsoft Xbox games, phone apps and software
Spendabit and The Bitcoin Shop Search engines of online retailers accepting bitcoin with millions of results
Overstock and Rakuten Everything under the sun
Gyft Gift cards for hundreds of retailers including Amazon, Target, Walmart, Starbucks, Whole Foods, CVS, Lowes, Home Depot, iTunes, Best Buy, Sears, Kohls, eBay, GameStop, etc.
NewEgg, TigerDirect and Dell For all your electronic needs
Expedia, Cheapair, Lot, Destinia, BTCTrip, Abitsky and 9flats For when you need to get away
BoltVM VPS service
Namecheap For new domain name registration
Cryptostorm, Mullvad, and PIA VPN services
Foodler and Takeaway Takeout delivered to your door!
HumbleBundle, Disco Melee, GreenmanGaming, and Coinplay.io For when you need to get your game on
Reddit Gold Premium membership which can be gifted to others
Shipnik Discounted USPS Priority & Express mail postage
Coinmap and AirBitz are helpful to find local businesses accepting bitcoins. UK residents can find a comprehensive directory of shops, pubs, websites and other places in the UK that accept bitcoins at wheretospendbitcoins.co.uk.
There are also lots of charities which accept bitcoin donations, such as Wikipedia, Red Cross, Amnesty International, United Way, ACLU and the EFF. You can find a longer list here.
Additional resources can also be found at TheBitcoinPage.com

Merchant Resources

There are several benefits to accepting bitcoin as a payment option if you are a merchant;
If you are interested in accepting bitcoin as a payment method, there are several options available;

Can I mine bitcoin?

Mining bitcoins can be a fun learning experience, but be aware that you will most likely operate at a loss. Newcomers are often advised to stay away from mining unless they are only interested in it as a hobby similar to folding at home. If you want to learn more about mining you can read more here. Still have mining questions? The crew at /BitcoinMining would be happy to help you out.
If you want to contribute to the bitcoin network by hosting the blockchain and propagating transactions you can run a full node using this setup guide. You can view the global node distribution here.

Earning bitcoins

Just like any other form of money, you can also earn bitcoins by being paid to do a job.
You can also earn bitcoins by participating as a market maker to allow users to perform CoinJoin transactions with your bitcoins for a small fee (requires you to already have some bitcoins)

Fundraising

You can use Lighthouse to crowdsource fundraising initiatives with bitcoin. It's similar to Kickstarter, but without intermediaries or exorbitant fees. You can participate in project discussions at /LighthouseProjects, and watch the progress of fundraisers at lightlist.io.

Bitcoin Projects

Here is a short list of ongoing projects that might be worth taking a look at if you are interested in current development in the bitcoin space.

Bitcoin Units

One Bitcoin is quite large (hundreds of £/$/€) so people often deal in smaller units. The most common subunits are listed below:
Unit Symbol Value Info
millibitcoin mBTC 1,000 per bitcoin SI unit for milli i.e. millilitre (mL) or millimetre (mm)
microbitcoin μBTC 1,000,000 per bitcoin SI unit for micro i.e microlitre (μL) or micrometre (μm)
bit bit 1,000,000 per bitcoin Colloquial "slang" term for microbitcoin
satoshi sat 100,000,000 per bitcoin Smallest unit in bitcoin, named after the inventor
For example, assuming an arbitrary exchange rate of $500 for one Bitcoin, a $10 meal would equal:
If you want to use 'bits' exclusively, just remember that there are 100 satoshis in 1 bit, and 1 million bits in one bitcoin. For more information check out the Bitcoin units wiki.
Still have questions? The friendly folks at /BitcoinBeginners would be happy to help you out, or stick around for our weekly Mentor Monday thread. If you decide to post a question in /Bitcoin, please use the search bar to see if it has been answered before, and remember to follow the community rules outlined on the sidebar to receive a better response. The mods are busy helping manage our community so please do not message them unless you notice problems with the functionality of the subreddit. A complete list of bitcoin related subreddits can be found here
Note: This is a community created FAQ. If you notice anything missing from the FAQ or that requires clarification you can edit it here and it will be included in the next revision pending approval.
Welcome to the Bitcoin community and the new decentralized economy!
submitted by BinaryResult to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

How To Get Your Bitcoin Transaction Confirmed with CPFP ... How long do Pending transactions take to clear? Pending btc, Solve this problem only one seconds, What to Do if Your Bitcoin Transaction Gets NEW PATENT PENDING Muldoon Auto Door

Since Bitcoin had no value when it launched, it was extremely easy to mine, and also free to send tons of transactions. In theory, this was a Denial of Service (DoS) Attack vector. A DoS or DDoS attack is when nodes get flooded with more data than they can handle and they crash. On a young Bitcoin network, a crash like this would have been deemed a failure of the network, so a cap of 1mb of ... View All Transactions. Buy, Swap and Store Crypto. Buying crypto like Bitcoin and Ether is as easy as verifying your identity, adding a payment and clicking "Buy". Sign up for our Wallet today. Create Wallet. Trade Crypto at the Exchange. Integrated with the Blockchain Wallet, our Exchange is a one-stop shop where you can deposit funds and place trades seamlessly in minutes. Get Started. Dive ... Bitcoin transactions can take anywhere between a few minutes to about 40 minutes. That being said, the timeline depends on the network itself. Since the settlement of bitcoin transactions is governed by the speed of confirmations on the blockchain (the public ledger of all Bitcoin transactions), Circle has no way of canceling transactions or speeding them up. A single confirmation on the ... Bitcoin transactions can take anywhere between a few minutes to about 40 minutes. That being said, the timeline depends on the network itself. Since the settlement of bitcoin transactions is governed by the speed of confirmations on the blockchain (the public ledger of all Bitcoin transactions), Circle has no way of canceling transactions or speeding them up. A single confirmation on the ... Lately, there have been issues with unconfirmed transactions in the Bitcoin world.One experience I had dealing with this problem was on February 29th as I waited three days for a large sum ...

[index] [22696] [30442] [46202] [23891] [20607] [1577] [33380] [6440] [44751] [18842]

How To Get Your Bitcoin Transaction Confirmed with CPFP ...

The Crypto Dad shows you how to trace a Bitcoin transaction. Important software used is: Electrum bitcoin wallet: https://electrum.org/#home The Blockchain e... How long do Pending transactions take to clear? • Here you will find the answer to all of your questions. ·········· “Be competent, be more skilful than others. #Bitcoin #BitcoinTransactions #FasterBitcoinTransactions. How To Pay Off Your Mortgage Fast Using Velocity Banking How To Pay Off Your Mortgage In 5-7 Years - Duration: 41:34. Think Wealthy with ... The NEW PATENT PENDING MULDOON AUTO DOOR is a revolutionary new product designed to provide safety to operators using dividing doors in bulk blowing vehicles. Normally, operators must enter the ... What to Do if Your Bitcoin Transaction Gets "Stuck"...Unconfirmed. Accelerate your transaction using the methods in this video. *****...

#