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HEMODYNAMIC ROUNDS: INTERPRETATION OF CARDIAC PATHOPHYSIOLOGY FROM PRESSURE WAVEFORM ANALYSIS (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION: EVERYDAY ENCOUNTERS (8TH EDITION) – EBOOK CFA PROGRAM CURRICULUM 2019 LEVEL II VOLUMES 1-6 – EBOOK HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (15TH EDITION) – EBOOK ADVANCED AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRONICS (CDX LEARNING SYSTEMS MASTER AUTOMOTIVE TECHNICIAN) – EBOOK STUDY GUIDE FOR PHARMACOLOGY: A PATIENT-CENTERED NURSING PROCESS APPROACH (8TH EDITION) – PDF MANAGEMENT ACROSS CULTURES (AUSTRALASIAN EDITION) – EBOOK TAYLOR’S POWER LAW: ORDER AND PATTERN IN NATURE – EBOOK THE CAMBRIDGE HANDBOOK OF EXPERTISE AND EXPERT PERFORMANCE (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK DEVELOPING ONLINE COURSES IN NURSING EDUCATION (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK CERTIFIED ACADEMIC CLINICAL NURSE EDUCATOR (CNE®CL) REVIEW MANUAL – EBOOK A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO PERSONAL CONDITIONING – EBOOK CALLED TO ACCOUNT: FINANCIAL FRAUDS THAT SHAPED THE ACCOUNTING PROFESSION (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS: INSTRUMENTS, COMMUNICATIONS, NAVIGATION, AND CONTROL – EBOOK MICROSOFT OFFICE 365 & OFFICE 2016 INTERMEDIATE – SHELLY CASHMAN SERIES – EBOOK AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRONICS – EBOOK HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (10TH EDITION) – EBOOK PARALEGAL TODAY: THE ESSENTIALS (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK THE ECONOMICS OF MONEY, BANKING AND FINANCIAL MARKETS (11TH EDITION) – GLOBAL – EBOOK INTERMEDIATE ACCOUNTING: REPORTING AND ANALYSIS (2ND EDITION) – TESTBANK + ISM + POWERPOINT ETC SEGUI’S STEEL DESIGN (5TH EDITION) – INSTRUCTOR SOLUTIONS MANUAL USMLE STEP 2 CK LECTURE NOTES 2019: PSYCHIATRY, EPIDEMIOLOGY, ETHICS, PATIENT – PDF FINANCIAL MARKETS AND INSTITUTIONS (9TH GLOBAL EDITION) – EBOOK INTEGRATING WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY INTO CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT – EBOOK USMLE STEP 2 CK LECTURE NOTES 2019: OBSTETRICS/GYNECOLOGY – KAPLAN TEST PREP DESIGN OF HIGHWAY BRIDGES: AN LRFD APPROACH (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK BIM AND BIG DATA FOR CONSTRUCTION COST MANAGEMENT – EBOOK FUNDAMENTAL ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES (22ND EDITION) – TEST BANK + SOLUTIONS + PPT FUNDAMENTALS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK ANDERSON’S BUSINESS LAW AND THE LEGAL ENVIRONMENT (22ND EDITION) – PDF WILEY INTERPRETATION AND APPLICATION OF IFRS STANDARDS – 2019 – EBOOK WILEY NOT-FOR-PROFIT GAAP 2018.: INTERPRETATION AND APPLICATION OF GENERALLY ACCEPTED ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK PRINCIPLES OF AUDITING & OTHER ASSURANCE SERVICES (21ST EDITION) – EBOOK QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK BUSINESS ANALYTICS AND STATISTICS – EBOOK FINANCIAL AND MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING (7TH EDITION) – WILD, SHAW, CHIAPPETTA – EBOOK CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK MOTOR LEARNING AND CONTROL: CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS (11TH EDITION) – EBOOK MEDICAL ETHICS: ACCOUNTS OF GROUND-BREAKING CASES (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK COMMUNITY PROJECTS AS SOCIAL ACTIVISM: FROM DIRECT ACTION TO DIRECT SERVICES – EBOOK THE CITY: THE BASICS – KEVIN ARCHER – EBOOK Designing the User Interface Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction 6e global DESIGNING THE USER INTERFACE: STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION (6TH GLOBAL EDITION) – EBOOK COMPUTER SECURITY FUNDAMENTALS (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK UBUNTU UNLEASHED 2019 EDITION: COVERING 18.04, 18.10, 19.04 (13TH EDITION) – EBOOK BECKER’S WORLD OF THE CELL (9TH EDITION) – GLOBAL – EBOOK MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY: PRINCIPLES FOR CLINICAL MEDICINE (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK ESSENTIALS OF CONTEMPORARY MANAGEMENT (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK PROJECT MANAGEMENT CASE STUDIES (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT OF ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS OF THE BRAIN AND SPINE MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS WITH APPLICATIONS IN R (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK VERTEBROBASILAR ISCHEMIA AND HEMORRHAGE: CLINICAL FINDINGS, DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF POSTERIOR CIRCULATION DISEASE (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK ENGINEERING MECHANICS: STATICS, 8TH EDITION – BY MERIAM – PDF E-BOOKS, ENGINEERING, MECHANICS, SCIENCE, TEXTBOOKS MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: DIFFERENT FACETS – EBOOK BASIC ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF THE BRAIN AND SPINE (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK UNIVERSITY PHYSICS WITH MODERN PHYSICS (14TH EDITION) – EBOOK ROBERT HISRICH’S ENTREPRENEURSHIP (10TH EDITION) – (IRWIN MANAGEMENT) – EBOOK BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS (10TH EDITION) – EBOOK NEW VENTURE CREATION: ENTREPRENEURSHIP FOR THE 21ST CENTURY (10TH EDITION) WONG’S NURSING CARE OF INFANTS AND CHILDREN (10TH EDITION) – EBOOK PRINCIPLES OF CANCER BIOLOGY – NEW INTERNATIONAL EDITION – EBOOK FORENSIC SCIENCE: FROM THE CRIME SCENE TO THE CRIME LAB (4TH EDITION) – TESTBANK + POWERPOINT INTRODUCTION TO JAVA PROGRAMMING AND DATA STRUCTURES, COMPREHENSIVE VERSION (11TH GLOBAL EDITION) UNIVERSITY PHYSICS FOR THE PHYSICAL AND LIFE SCIENCES – SOLUTION MANUAL PRINCIPLES OF GENERAL CHEMISTRY (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK DEVITA, HELLMAN, AND ROSENBERG’S CANCER, PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF ONCOLOGY: REVIEW (4TH EDITION) LEARNING PYTHON APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT – EBOOK RESEARCH METHODS AND STATISTICS IN PSYCHOLOGY (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK MATERNAL CHILD NURSING CARE (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK SNAPSHOTS OF HEMODYNAMICS: AN AID FOR CLINICAL RESEARCH AND GRADUATE EDUCATION (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK YAMADA’S TEXTBOOK OF GASTROENTEROLOGY, 2 VOLUME SET (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK KRUGMAN’S ECONOMICS FOR AP® (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY (8TH EDITION) – GLOBAL – EBOOK PRECALCULUS: GRAPHICAL, NUMERICAL, ALGEBRAIC (8TH EDITION) – EBOOK PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING (7TH EUROPEAN EDITION) – EBOOK CLINICAL GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY: A COMPREHENSIVE ATLAS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK ADVANCED FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING (12TH EDITION) – EBOOK FORENSIC PLANT SCIENCE – EBOOK THE OXFORD HANDBOOK OF WITCHCRAFT IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE AND COLONIAL AMERICA – EBOOK THE MINDBODY WORKBOOK: A THIRTY DAY PROGRAM OF INSIGHT AND AWARENESS FOR PEOPLE WITH BACK PAIN AND OTHER DISORDERS – EBOOK HARRISON’S HEMATOLOGY AND ONCOLOGY (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK JAVA IN TWO SEMESTERS: FEATURING JAVAFX (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK CHEMISTRY: THE CENTRAL SCIENCE (11TH EDITION) – TEST BANK WILLIAMSON’S MACROECONOMICS (6TH EDITION) – THE PEARSON SERIES IN ECONOMICS – EBOOK BIOLOGY: A GLOBAL APPROACH (11TH EDITION) – GLOBAL – EBOOK AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS TEXTBOOK OF PEDIATRIC CARE (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK BUSINESS LAW TODAY, COMPREHENSIVE: TEXT AND CASES: DIVERSE, ETHICAL, ONLINE, AND GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT (10TH EDITION) C++ PROGRAMMING: FROM PROBLEM ANALYSIS TO PROGRAM DESIGN (8TH EDITION) – EBOOK AMERICAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS TODAY, ENHANCED (18TH EDITION) – EBOOK LUNG CANCER: A PRACTICAL APPROACH TO EVIDENCE-BASED CLINICAL EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT – EBOOK ROGERS’ TEXTBOOK OF PEDIATRIC INTENSIVE CARE (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY (5TH EDITION) – NIVALDO TRO – EBOOK EQUINE VETERINARY NURSING (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK CONTANZO’S PHYSIOLOGY (7TH EDITION) – BOARD REVIEW SERIES – EBOOK BAILEY AND LOVE’S SHORT PRACTICE OF SURGERY (27TH EDITION) – EBOOK ESSENTIALS OF HOSPITAL NEUROLOGY – EBOOK FAT FOR FUEL KETOGENIC COOKBOOK: RECIPES AND KETOGENIC KEYS TO HEALTH FROM A WORLD-CLASS DOCTOR AND AN INTERNATIONALLY RENOWNED CHEF COST ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGERS – EBOOK WARDLAW’S CONTEMPORARY NUTRITION UPDATED WITH 2015-2020 DIETARY GUIDELINES (10TH EDITION) – EBOOK OPERATIONS AND PROCESS MANAGEMENT: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE FOR STRATEGIC IMPACT (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: POLISHING YOUR PROFESSIONAL PRESENCE (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK CONTEMPORARY ENGINEERING ECONOMICS (6TH EDITION) – GLOBAL – EBOOK BIOCHEMISTRY: CONCEPTS AND CONNECTIONS (2ND EDITION) – GLOBAL – EBOOK WHY PUNISH? HOW MUCH? A READER ON PUNISHMENT – EBOOK INTRODUCTORY ALGEBRA (11TH EDITION) – EBOOK DATA WRANGLING WITH JAVASCRIPT – EBOOK FUNDAMENTALS OF MANAGEMENT: MANAGEMENT MYTHS DEBUNKED! (10TH GLOBAL EDITION) – EBOOK LARSON’S PRECALCULUS (10TH EDITION) – EBOOK E-BOOKS AN INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS – EBOOK INTRODUCTION TO CRYPTOGRAPHY: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK ESSENTIALS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR – 1ST CANADIAN EDITION – EBOOK CORPORATE FINANCE: THEORY AND PRACTICE (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK MACHINE ELEMENTS IN MECHANICAL DESIGN (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK PROGRAMMING BITCOIN: LEARN HOW TO PROGRAM BITCOIN FROM SCRATCH – EBOOK MINING THE SOCIAL WEB: DATA MINING FACEBOOK, TWITTER, LINKEDIN, INSTAGRAM, GITHUB, AND MORE (3RD EDITION) ECONOMICS (9TH EDITION) BY SLOMAN ET AL – EBOOK APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS (2ND EDITION – INTERNATIONAL) – EBOOK CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (7TH EDITION) GLOBAL BIOPSYCHOLOGY (10TH EDITION) GLOBAL – EBOOK COMPREHENSIVE CLINICAL NEPHROLOGY (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK MESSAGES: BUILDING INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS (5TH CANADIAN EDITION) – EBOOK APPLIED NUMERICAL METHODS WITH MATLAB FOR ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS (4TH EDITION) BUSINESS DRIVEN TECHNOLOGY (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK FOUNDATIONS IN MICROBIOLOGY (10TH EDITION) – EBOOK HUMAN BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS AND CURRENT ISSUES (8TH EDITION – GLOBAL) – EBOOK BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS AND INVESTIGATIONS (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK DATABASE SYSTEMS: DESIGN, IMPLEMENTATION, AND MANAGEMENT (12TH EDITION) HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, 14TH EDITION (GLOBAL) – EBOOK ECOSOPHICAL AESTHETICS: ART, ETHICS AND ECOLOGY WITH GUATTARI – EBOOK PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASES (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK E-BOOKS, MEDICINE, PEDIATRICS HOUSE OF SPIES – DANIEL SILVA – AUDIOBOOK IN-CAMERA: LIGHT VIDEO WORKSHOP WITH ZACH & JODY MBA IN A BOOK: MASTERING BUSINESS WITH ATTITUDE – AUDIOBOOK SUPERFREAKONOMICS: GLOBAL COOLING, PATRIOTIC PROSTITUTES, AND WHY SUICIDE BOMBERS SHOULD BUY LIFE INSURANCE 10% HAPPIER: HOW I TAMED THE VOICE IN MY HEAD – DAN HARRIS – AUDIOBOOK GENERAL, ORGANIC, AND BIOCHEMISTRY (9TH EDITION) – EBOOK INTERMEDIATE ACCOUNTING (11TH CANADIAN EDITION) – VOLUME I AND II – EBOOK ANATOMY: A PHOTOGRAPHIC ATLAS (8TH EDITION) – EBOOK MANAGEMENT AND COST ACCOUNTING (10TH EDITION) – EBOOK FUNDAMENTALS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK GAUGE THEORIES IN PARTICLE PHYSICS: A PRACTICAL INTRODUCTION, VOLUME 1 AND 2 (4TH EDITION) PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS FOR ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS (9TH EDITION) GLOBAL – EBOOK BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY (STANDARD 9TH EDITION) – EBOOK CHESLEY’S HYPERTENSIVE DISORDERS IN PREGNANCY (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK GRAY’S ATLAS OF ANATOMY (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK LANGE Q&A PSYCHIATRY (11TH EDITION) – EBOOK E-BOOKS, MEDICINE, PSYCHOLOGY, TEXTBOOKS CLINICAL CASES IN ENDODONTICS – EBOOK THE WASHINGTON MANUAL OF SURGERY (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK CELL BIOLOGY (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK BRUNNER AND SUDDARTH’S TEXTBOOK OF MEDICAL-SURGICAL NURSING (12TH EDITION) THE WASHINGTON MANUAL OF PEDIATRICS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING: PEDIATRICS (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK MANUAL OF CLINICAL PROCEDURES IN DENTISTRY – EBOOK PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY: A CLINICAL APPROACH (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY, IMMUNOTHERAPY AND BIOTHERAPY (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK STEP-UP TO EMERGENCY MEDICINE – EBOOK (IRWIN ECONOMICS) – ECONOMICS (21ST EDITION) – EBOOK FUNDAMENTALS OF INVESTING (13TH EDITION) GLOBAL – EBOOK VIDEO GAME LAW: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT LEGAL AND BUSINESS ISSUES IN THE GAME INDUSTRY – EBOOK MASS MEDIA LAW (20TH EDITION) – EBOOK PRIVATE SECURITY AND THE LAW (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK STATISTICS FOR ECONOMICS, ACCOUNTING AND BUSINESS STUDIES (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK DESCRIPTIVE INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK HOUSE’S DESCRIPTIVE INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK COST ACCOUNTING: FOUNDATIONS AND EVOLUTIONS (8TH EDITION) – EBOOK A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO LEARNING ROBOT PROGRAMMING WITH ROS – EBOOK ENGINEERING MECHANICS: STATICS AND DYNAMICS (14TH EDITION) – EBOOK ADVANCED ACCOUNTING (12TH EDITION) – EBOOK ADVANCED ACCOUNTING (13TH GLOBAL EDITION) – EBOOK MODERN PHYSICS: FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK GLOBAL ETHICS FOR LEADERSHIP (VOLUME 13) – EBOOK E-BOOKS, MANAGEMENT, POLITICS ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SCHOOL HEALTH – EBOOK CRASH COURSE – RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF THE OCEANS (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS: AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGINEERING (5TH EDITION) SI EDITION INTERNATIONAL TRADE: THEORY AND POLICY 11TH EDITION (GLOBAL) – EBOOK ESSENTIALS OF ECONOMICS (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK INDUSTRIAL PROCESS AUTOMATION SYSTEMS: DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION – EBOOK CLASSICAL GEOMETRY: EUCLIDEAN, TRANSFORMATIONAL, INVERSIVE, AND PROJECTIVE – EBOOK CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (10TH EDITION) – EBOOK ELEMENTARY STATISTICS: PICTURING THE WORLD (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK DISCOVERING COMPUTERS & MICROSOFT OFFICE 365 & OFFICE 2016: A FUNDAMENTAL COMBINED APPROACH – EBOOK INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMICALS (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK CHEMISTRY, E-BOOKS, SCIENCE MAYO CLINIC INTERNAL MEDICINE BOARD REVIEW (11TH EDITION) – EBOOK AUGUST’S CONSULTATIONS IN FELINE INTERNAL MEDICINE, VOLUME 7 (1ST EDITION) – EBOOK HUMAN RIGHTS AND PERSONAL SELF-DEFENSE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW – EBOOK THE IRAN-UAE GULF ISLANDS DISPUTE (QUEEN MARY STUDIES IN INTERNATIONAL LAW) – EBOOK ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY (12TH GLOBAL EDITION) – EBOOK A&P, E-BOOKS, TEXTBOOKS ESSENTIALS OF ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY (7TH EDITION, GLOBAL) – EBOOK CREASY AND RESNIK’S MATERNAL-FETAL MEDICINE: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK GEAR CUTTING TOOLS: SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING (2ND EDITION) – EBOOKS HARRISON’S PRINCIPLES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE (19TH EDITION) – PDF – EBOOK OBSTETRICS: NORMAL AND PROBLEM PREGNANCIES (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK FUNDAMENTAL STATISTICS FOR THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES (8TH EDITION) – EBOOK ROCK SLOPE ENGINEERING: CIVIL APPLICATIONS (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK LTE OPTIMIZATION ENGINEERING HANDBOOK – EBOOK AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES FOR ENGINEERING STUDENTS (6TH EDITION) – ETEXTBOOK ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK CHEMICAL ENGINEERING COMPUTATION WITH MATLAB – EBOOK PRECALCULUS (10TH EDITION GLOBAL) – MICHAEL SULLIVAN – ETEXTBOOK THE ART AND CRAFT OF PROBLEM SOLVING (3RD EDITION) BY PAUL ZEITZ – EBOOK FUNDAMENTALS OF GENERAL, ORGANIC AND BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY (8TH EDITION) IN SI UNITS PRINCIPLES OF GENERAL, ORGANIC, & BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY – ETEXTBOOK VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS 10TH EDITION – ETEXTBOOK PRINCIPLES OF DIRECT DATABASE & DIGITAL MARKETING (5TH EDITION) – ETEXTBOOK PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS 4TH EDITION – ETEXTBOOK THE PSYCHOLOGY STUDENT WRITER’S MANUAL AND READER’S GUIDE (THE STUDENT WRITER’S MANUAL: A GUIDE TO READING AND WRITING) 3RD EDITION PROTEIN PHYSICS: A COURSE OF LECTURES (SOFT CONDENSED MATTER, COMPLEX FLUIDS AND BIOMATERIALS) – 2E RENEWABLE ENERGY: PHYSICS, ENGINEERING, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS, ECONOMICS AND PLANNING (5TH EDITION) VACUUM AND ULTRAVACUUM: PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY 1ST EDITION – EBOOK E-BOOKS, PHYSICS, SCIENCE CHEESE, 4TH EDITION: CHEMISTRY, PHYSICS AND MICROBIOLOGY CHEMISTRY, E-BOOKS, PHYSICS, SCIENCE, TEXTBOOKS THEORETICAL BASIS FOR NURSING (4TH EDITION) – MCEWEN AND WILLS HOUSE OF SPIES – DANIEL SILVA – EBOOK WHERE GOOD IDEAS COME FROM: THE NATURAL HISTORY OF INNOVATION THE SUMMER BRIDE – CHANCE SISTERS #4 – AUDIOBOOK AUDIOBOOKS, ROMANCE, TEENS STUFF MATTERS: EXPLORING THE MARVELOUS MATERIALS THAT SHAPE OUR MAN-MADE WORLD YES! 50 SCIENTIFICALLY PROVEN WAYS TO BE PERSUASIVE – AUDIOBOOK FOOD SECURITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE – EBOOK ESSENTIAL UNIVERSITY PHYSICS: VOLUME 1 (3RD GLOBAL EDITION) – EBOOK E-BOOKS, PHYSICS, SCIENCE, TEXTBOOKS FEATURED ENVIRONMENT: THE SCIENCE BEHIND THE STORIES (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK FINITE MATHEMATICS FOR BUSINESS, ECONOMICS, LIFE SCIENCES, AND SOCIAL SCIENCES (13TH EDITION) – EBOOK AUTOCAD 3D MODELING: EXERCISE WORKBOOK – EBOOK COMPUTERS, E-BOOKS, ENGINEERING MASTERING AUTOCAD 2019 AND AUTOCAD LT 2019 – EBOOK FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW AND ECONOMICS – EBOOK PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS, A STREAMLINED APPROACH (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK MODERN PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK COOKING: THE QUINTESSENTIAL ART – EBOOK AN INTRODUCTION TO GROUP WORK PRACTICE (8TH GLOBAL EDITION) – EBOOK RETAILING MANAGEMENT (9TH EDITION) – EBOOK RETAIL SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK BACTERIAL THERAPY OF CANCER: METHODS AND PROTOCOLS – EBOOK EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: THEORY AND PRACTICE (12TH EDITION) – EBOOK UNDERSTANDING FOOD: PRINCIPLES AND PREPARATION (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK THE ROUTLEDGE INTERNATIONAL HANDBOOK OF LIFELONG LEARNING – EBOOK PRACTICAL RESEARCH: PLANNING AND DESIGN (11TH EDITION) – EBOOK THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE – EBOOK THE HANDBOOK OF THE HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF CRIMINOLOGY – EBOOK ADVANCED MECHANICS OF MATERIALS AND APPLIED ELASTICITY – EBOOK OPERATING SYSTEM CONCEPTS – ESSENTIALS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK THE AMERICAN LAB: AN INSIDER’S HISTORY OF THE LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY – EBOOK FEATURED HEALTH PROMOTION PROGRAMS: FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE – EBOOK HEALTH PROMOTION IN SCHOOL: THEORY, PRACTICE AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS – EBOOK DESIGNING WITH THE MIND IN MIND: SIMPLE GUIDE TO UNDERSTANDING USER INTERFACE DESIGN GUIDELINES (2ND EDITION) BUSINESS STATISTICS: A FIRST COURSE (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS (12TH EDITION) – EBOOK RESEARCH METHODS FOR BUSINESS: A SKILL BUILDING APPROACH (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK RESEARCH METHODS FOR BUSINESS STUDENTS (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK THE SAGE HANDBOOK OF QUALITATIVE BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT RESEARCH METHODS – EBOOK CULTURE, LEADERSHIP, AND ORGANIZATIONS: THE GLOBE STUDY OF 62 SOCIETIES – EBOOK CULTURE’S CONSEQUENCES: COMPARING VALUES, BEHAVIORS, INSTITUTIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS ACROSS NATIONS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK DIVERSITY IN ORGANIZATIONS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK SERVICES MARKETING: CONCEPTS, STRATEGIES, AND CASES (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK GARTNER’S MACROECONOMICS (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK LIFETIME PHYSICAL FITNESS AND WELLNESS (15TH EDITION) – EBOOK MATERNAL-CHILD NURSING CARE, OPTIMIZING OUTCOMES FOR MOTHERS, CHILDREN AND FAMILIES – EBOOK CAPITALIST FAMILY VALUES: GENDER, WORK, AND CORPORATE CULTURE AT BOEING – EBOOK CULTURE AND THE POLITICS OF WELFARE: EXPLORING SOCIETAL VALUES AND SOCIAL CHOICES – EBOOK PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS FOR ENGINEERING AND THE SCIENCES (9TH EDITION) – SOLUTIONS MANUAL MATERIAL CULTURE IN RUSSIA AND THE USSR: THINGS, VALUES, IDENTITIES- EBOOK FREED SLAVES AND ROMAN IMPERIAL CULTURE: SOCIAL INTEGRATION AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF VALUES – EBOOK LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR (8TH EDITION) – EBOOK MICROECONOMICS: CANADA IN THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT (9TH EDITION) – EBOOK EMERGING GENRES IN NEW MEDIA ENVIRONMENTS – EBOOK MACHINE COMPONENT ANALYSIS WITH MATLAB – EBOOK COMPUTATIONAL ELECTROMAGNETICS WITH MATLAB (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK MATLAB ESSENTIALS: A FIRST COURSE FOR ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS – EBOOK AN ANTHROPOLOGY OF LEARNING: ON NESTED FRICTIONS IN CULTURAL ECOLOGIES – EBOOK HUMAN CULTURE: HIGHLIGHTS OF CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF FLUID MACHINERY: APPLYING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS AND NUMERICAL OPTIMIZATION – EBOOK KINEMATICS, DYNAMICS, AND DESIGN OF MACHINERY (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK ACCOUNTING FOR GOVERNMENTAL & NONPROFIT ENTITIES (17TH EDITION) – EBOOK GROUP DYNAMICS (7TH EDITION) – TEST BANK, INSTRUCTOR MANUAL, POWERPOINT BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: PROCESS AND PRODUCT (9TH EDITION) – EBOOK ADDICTION AND CHANGE: HOW ADDICTIONS DEVELOP AND ADDICTED PEOPLE RECOVER (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK TOBACCO SMOKING ADDICTION: EPIDEMIOLOGY, GENETICS, MECHANISMS, AND TREATMENT – EBOOK POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID METABOLISM – EBOOK ULRICH & CANALE’S NURSING CARE PLANNING GUIDES: PRIORITIZATION, DELEGATION, AND CRITICAL THINKING (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK A HANDBOOK TO THE RECEPTION OF CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY – EBOOK CONCEPTS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES (11TH EDITION) – GLOBAL – EBOOK THROUGH THE LENS OF ANTHROPOLOGY: AN INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN EVOLUTION AND CULTURE (2ND EDITION) THROUGH THE LENS OF ANTHROPOLOGY: AN INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN EVOLUTION AND CULTURE – EBOOK INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY: AN ATOMS FIRST APPROACH – BURDGE/DRIESSEN – EBOOK PUBLIC RELATIONS: THE PROFESSION AND THE PRACTICE (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK THE PRACTICE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS (13TH GLOBAL EDITION) – EBOOK ESSENTIAL UNIVERSITY PHYSICS: VOLUME 2 (3RD GLOBAL EDITION) – EBOOK ESSENTIAL UNIVERSITY PHYSICS (3RD EDITION) – VOLUME 1 & 2 – EBOOK LEADERSHIP AND SCHOOL QUALITY (RESEARCH AND THEORY IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION) – EBOOK CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY: AN APPLIED PERSPECTIVE (10TH EDITION) – EBOOK ESSENTIAL ENVIRONMENT: THE SCIENCE BEHIND THE STORIES (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK PRACTITIONERS’ GUIDE TO HUMAN RIGHTS LAW IN ARMED CONFLICT – EBOOK HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT: SHIFTING PARADIGMS IN ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE FOR SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION: THEORY, RESEARCH, AND PRACTICE (9TH EDITION) – 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[Diplomacy] The Third Belt and Road Forum: The Caucasus

June 8th, 2021
Beijing, China
The reality is that China does not have the military power that the United States and Russia bring to the world stage, nor do we have decades of Cold War influence that have carved out spheres of influence in the forms of economic unions, alliances, and buffer zones. However, we have the greatest weapons of all on our side: time, and an artificially-devalued currency that allows us to perform what Western economists refer to as "black magic." Our system has confounded the West and its brightest minds for years, and they will continue to scratch their heads as the honorable and powerful People's Republic exercises our soft economic power to carve out our own spheres of influence across the world.
Debt is a loaded gun with a hair trigger, a time bomb with a broken clock. There is a reason moneylenders were so hated all throughout human history -- they held power over their debtors, real power. In a world that is becoming increasingly dominated by the multilateral alliance of NATO and the lone Dragon, we must build a multinational web of our own. We do not have natural allies as do the Americans and Europeans, and many around us do not trust us enough to sign onto a permanent military alliance. However, we can slowly bring the nations of the world to appreciate us through copious investments. And it is through these investments that we will make these countries dependent upon us for growth, so that they may one day repay our kindness with a favor of our own request. The greatest minds of China, including Paramount Leader Xi Jinping, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank President Jin Liqun, and Silk Road Fund Chairwoman Jin Qi have determined that this is our path forward, and we will follow it to the glorious destiny that awaits us.
The first Belt and Road Forum of 2021 will focus on a valuable reason, one with limitless potential for growth and profit, and an important battleground in the war for global influence: the Caucasus. Turkey, Georgia, and Azerbaijan have been isolated for this round of offers, focusing on infrastructure, energy, agriculture, and more.

Turkey: The Middle Corridor

A nation seeking to increase its own global standing, the Republic of Turkey recently announced the creation of the Middle Corridor Project, an investment program seeking to increase connectivity between Europe and Asia through Anatolia and the Caucasus. Conveniently enough, the People's Republic share the same goal. While Chinese-Turkish relations are not all they once were, it is our opinion that our nations still have much to gain through cooperation in this arena. Therefore, we bring the following offers to the Republic of Turkey:
Working On the Railroad
Following the imminent integration of the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars Railway with the Edirne-Kars High Speed Railway, the Turkish-Chinese trade network -- with a total volume of over $100 billion -- will become much faster and more efficient. The vast expansion of this capacity for movement of goods will continue to open up trade avenues between Turkey and China, allowing the Turks to benefit from Chinese investment and affordable manufacturing while Chinese companies will gain access to one of the largest and fastest-growing markets and industrial bases in Europe. To further accelerate and improve this process, China is willing to offer a loan of $2 billion dollars at a 2.4% yearly interest rate for the purpose of more quickly integrating the two rail networks with the rest of the trans-Asian railways. As Chinese companies have been proven to construct a mile of high speed rail for the ludicrously low price of $30 million, this offer should invigorate the process and greatly enhance the railway's capabilities should Turkey accept.
The Nuclear Option
A major goal of the Turkish Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources throughout the 2010s has been the construction of nuclear power plants in order to increase the nation's share of energy from that source. However, a number of projects have only ended in failure, having met various roadblocks from the safety issues that led to the abandonment of the Sinop Power Plant Project and the deterioration of relations with Russia that have halted the progress on the notable Akkuyu Power Plant Project, which was originally scheduled to be built, owned, and operated by Russian parent company Rosatom. The final nuclear plant scheduled in Turkey is the İğneada Power Plant, to be supported by American company Westinghouse Electric.
The People's Republic believes that Turkey would be better off working with the expert Chinese engineers and technicians, rather than the Russians, whose vision of Turkey and willingness to help is clouded by political tension, and the Americans, whose vision of Turkey is little more than a puppet and bulwark against Islamic terrorism in the Middle East. Certainly, Turkey can do better than this. The People's Republic has recognized that Turkey's economy has incredible potential fueled by a hardworking people and a bounty of natural resources. Therefore, we offer the following proposal to the Republic of Turkey:

Georgia: On My Mind

Georgia, despite the relative prosperity in Tbilisi and other major cities, is still very much a developing country. It is heavily reliant on agriculture in many regions, and subsistence farming remains quite common throughout rural parts of the nation. The People's Republic's analysis of the country has determined that in order for it to accelerate its growth and drastically increase its standard of living, it must break the economic stranglehold that is subsistence farming, and Chinese corporations are more than willing to assist in this task. In 2019, Maya Tskitishvili, the Georgian Minister of Infrastructure and Regional Development commented that the Belt and Road Initiative would serve an essential function in growing the Georgian economy. As Georgia was one of the first nations to express interest in the initiative back in 2015, we find it fit to repay this faith in kind.
Fixing Farms
As stated, reforming agriculture through the end of subsistence farming is key to unlocking Georgia's industrial and economic potential. To this end, the Beijing Hosen Investment Management Group, along with a number of smaller Chinese agricultural investment firms, are willing to invest a total of $40 million into purchasing farms of 200 acres or less, or farms that have a projected yearly revenue of $50,000 or less, in order to consolidate them into large farms. These farms will employ at least 80% of their workers as Georgian nationals, while Chinese workers may be immigrated into the country to pick up the remaining jobs that will be created -- a notion that Georgia has previously explored with South African, Armenian, and Arabian nationals. Agriculture is generally associated with economies of scale, meaning that larger farms are more productive and more cost-efficient, so neighboring farms that can be combined into singular large enterprises will have a higher priority for purchase and investment. Furthermore, for larger-scale, Georgian-owned agricultural projects, the People's Republic is willing to offer various loans to Georgian companies. A total of $250 million will be made available at a flat yearly interest rate of 3% for the lease of Chinese-manufactured farming equipment from WeiFang Guanghui Agriculture Mechanism, Shandong Yingsheng Machinery Company, and the Qingdao Iaoshan Tractor Factory.
The governments and cooperations of China and Georgia will cooperate to ensure that Georgian farmers who sell their farms will be able to find jobs in the newly-consolidated agricultural conglomerates to ease fears of unemployment. Furthermore, our economists (as well as Georgian economists) estimate that the jobs created by the elimination of subsistence farming will more than compensate for those lost during the transition.
Bit by Boring Bit
Interestingly, a growing career path in the nation of Georgia is full-time Bitcoin mining, as well as other forms of cryptocurrency. It is becoming quite common for young Georgians to take advantage of powerful Soviet-era electricity grids and the abundance of electricity in the region to mine vast quantities of cryptocurrency, making Georgia one of the leading countries in the crypto market. We believe that we can use this to our advantage. Chinese investment banks, notably the Agricultural Bank of China, will purchase a number of cryptomines and put them to work for the People's Republic, subsidizing part of the electricity cost in exchange for a portion of the profits and a foot in the door of the vast Caucasian energy industry, which will be developed more later.

Azerbaijan: The Middle Child

At the Second International Belt and Road Forum in 2019, Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev indicated his country's express interest in taking part of the project to expand its infrastructure and trade opportunities. With the increasing importance of the BTK railway, we see it fit to secure our interests in the Azerbaijani economy so that both our countries may profit. We wish to extend an offer of a loan of $8 billion with an interest rate of 3.2% to Azerbaijan to be used in expanding the Baku International Sea Trade Port, which currently handles 15 million tons of cargo, to handle 25 million tons of cargo by 2028. We would also like to explore the possibility of increased Chinese presence in the Caspian through investments in Caspian Sea natural gas, and the China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation is willing to invest $2.4 billion for the construction of two natural gas drilling facilities in the Bahar offshore oil and gas field in the southern Caspian. These natural gas facilities will employ at least 80% of its labor force as Azerbaijani workers, and up to 49% of shares in the facilities will be made available for sale to non-Chinese investors. There are an estimated 25×109 m3 of natural gas in the Bahar fields alone, and the fields currently produce around 130 billion m3, making them a valuable resource that should yield consistent production and profit well into the future.

The Fourth Belt and Road Forum

The People's Republic is open for business. In the wake of the COVID-19 outbreak that scarred many economies around the world, we want our fellow nations to know that China is willing and able to invest in them to ensure a better future for both our peoples. Currently, China is targeting the Middle East for the next round of investments, but the People's Republic promises that any nation which requests loans will be considered.
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Canadian Bitcoin Mining Firm Files for Bankruptcy

Canadian Bitcoin Mining Firm Files for Bankruptcy
Canada-based cryptocurrency mining firm Great North Data has filed for bankruptcy, owing millions to creditors and government agencies.

https://preview.redd.it/gcw15zxp3z241.png?width=999&format=png&auto=webp&s=cc17317ab5db88acf3f9b77c3bad2978db258f92
Cryptocurrency mining and AI processing data company Great North Data has filed for bankruptcy due to insolvency, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) reported on 4 December.
According to the report, Great North Data filed its bankruptcy documents late last month, saying that it had only CA$4.6 million (around $3.5 million USD) in assets, while owing creditors CA$13.2 million ($10 million USD).
The company ran crypto mining centers in Labrador City and Happy Valley-Goose Bay, and had received support from federal and provincial governments.
The company reportedly owes CA$313,718 ($238,080) to the Business Investment Corporation of the provincial Newfoundland and Labrador government. The company originally secured a CA$420,000 loan from the province for building, land, machinery and equipment.
Listed as an unsecured creditor, the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA) is owed CA$281,675. The ACOA, which aims to create opportunities for economic growth in the region, had originally funded the company with CA$500,000 back in 2015, which were to be repaid under an agreement.
The federal agency has said in a statement that officials “are in contact with the client and are closely following all developments” involving the company.
In addition, the company has also left a power bill of CA$316,477, owed to the Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro, which is listed as an unsecured creditor. At the time of writing, Great North Data’s website has remained offline.
The crypto mining industry has become increasingly challenging, with a number of mining companies closing their doors in the past year. In October, a mining operation in the U.S., BCause Mining, was ordered to shut down, liquidate its assets, and lay off its workers, after it filed for bankruptcy earlier this year.
Others, on the other hand, are still entering the crypto mining industry. Last month, data center developer Whinstone US announced that it will be starting construction on the “world’s largest Bitcoin Mining facility” in Rockdale, Texas. The plan is for the project to start at 300 megawatts, and expand to 1 gigawatt by the end of next year.

Learn more: Zeus Mining

This news comes from: https://chainbulletin.com/canadian-bitcoin-mining-firm-files-for-bankruptcy/
submitted by Moustache_Group to BitcoinMining [link] [comments]

Canadian Bitcoin Mining Firm Files for Bankruptcy

Canadian Bitcoin Mining Firm Files for Bankruptcy
Canada-based cryptocurrency mining firm Great North Data has filed for bankruptcy, owing millions to creditors and government agencies.
https://preview.redd.it/sjdqp3pabz241.png?width=999&format=png&auto=webp&s=9ce9b7eb03734b57975baee6c2a0c6b3b91660d7
Cryptocurrency mining and AI processing data company Great North Data has filed for bankruptcy due to insolvency, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) reported on 4 December.
According to the report, Great North Data filed its bankruptcy documents late last month, saying that it had only CA$4.6 million (around $3.5 million USD) in assets, while owing creditors CA$13.2 million ($10 million USD).
The company ran crypto mining centers in Labrador City and Happy Valley-Goose Bay, and had received support from federal and provincial governments.
The company reportedly owes CA$313,718 ($238,080) to the Business Investment Corporation of the provincial Newfoundland and Labrador government. The company originally secured a CA$420,000 loan from the province for building, land, machinery and equipment.
Listed as an unsecured creditor, the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA) is owed CA$281,675. The ACOA, which aims to create opportunities for economic growth in the region, had originally funded the company with CA$500,000 back in 2015, which were to be repaid under an agreement.
The federal agency has said in a statement that officials “are in contact with the client and are closely following all developments” involving the company.
In addition, the company has also left a power bill of CA$316,477, owed to the Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro, which is listed as an unsecured creditor. At the time of writing, Great North Data’s website has remained offline.
The crypto mining industry has become increasingly challenging, with a number of mining companies closing their doors in the past year. In October, a mining operation in the U.S., BCause Mining, was ordered to shut down, liquidate its assets, and lay off its workers, after it filed for bankruptcy earlier this year.
Others, on the other hand, are still entering the crypto mining industry. Last month, data center developer Whinstone US announced that it will be starting construction on the “world’s largest Bitcoin Mining facility” in Rockdale, Texas. The plan is for the project to start at 300 megawatts, and expand to 1 gigawatt by the end of next year.
Learn more: Zeus Mining
This news comes from: https://chainbulletin.com/canadian-bitcoin-mining-firm-files-for-bankruptcy/
submitted by Moustache_Group to ZEUSMINING [link] [comments]

TOKENISED, EASY AND PROFITABLE MINING

Miners, looking for a big mining facility to collaborate with, can depend on MinedBlock for the use of its services. The mining company is open to providing individuals looking to mine cryptocurrencies with a remarkable platform. This saves individuals from carrying the financial burden that comes with building a decent mining rig.
The running cost of a mining facility is usually high due to the electricity consumption of the equipment used. Making a profit could be extremely tough. Often, mining companies are neck deep in debts due to their electricity bills. MinedBlock intends to avoid this cataclysmic situation by citing its mining facilities in areas with surplus renewable energy sources. This wouldn’t just assist MinedBlock to save money, the environment will be better for it. To ensure a distinction of their operations, MinedBlock inculcates two tokens – MBTX (security token) and MBTU (utility token). While investors take possession of the MBTX and earn returns as stipulated in their whitepaper, individual miners can take advantage of the MBTU to pay for the use of the mining facility. There are benefits associated with both tokens. The MBTX and MBTU earn you profits, but trading and other uses vary. The security token isn’t for sale outside the security tokens exchanges while the utility token can be traded on just about anywhere. If you intend using the MinedBlock platform for mining, payment will involve the use of the utility token MBTU.
Unlike many other mining facilities that dedicate their effort to mining bitcoin, MinedBlock mines several cryptocurrencies. This is an expensive venture since mining different tokens involve distinct machinery. Apparently, the mining company must have the wherewithal to purchase the required gadgets for mining different tokens. The onset of a mining operation might take so much of your time, especially when configuring the device to do what you want. Many facilities couldn’t care less about the challenges you are up against, but not MinedBlock. They set up everything for an individual miner, so you won’t have to go through the stress of doing it yourself and the associated time constraints that come with it.
Website: https://www.minedblock.io/
White paper: https://www.minedblock.io/assets/MinedBlockWhitepaper.pdf
Username: AE012
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Facebook’s Libra won’t be as power-hungry as Bitcoin

Libra, Facebook’s new cryptocurrency, is expected to have a smaller environmental footprint compared to some of its more notorious blockchain brethren, including bitcoin, according to experts. Its energy demands are projected to be more like those of existing data centers — which, while still demanding, aren’t quite as energy-hungry as mining bitcoins.
The currency hasn’t launched yet, so it’s hard to know how those claims will stack up against reality. But its design — more centralized than most cryptocurrencies — means that Libra will likely draw less energy. Unlike its more decentralized peers, only a few trusted members of the Libra Association, the centralized hub for the currency, can create Libra.
AN ORDER OF MAGNITUDE MORE EFFICIENT THAN BITCOIN
“This is an order of magnitude more efficient than bitcoin will ever be,” says Ulrich Gallersdörfer, a researcher at Technical University of Munich focused on blockchain research. Gallersdörfer was the co-author on a recent paper in Joule30255-7) finding that bitcoin operations emit more climate-warming gas than the country of Jordan.
Bitcoin uses so much energy because people who want to hold the cryptocurrency have to compete for it. That means bitcoin mining operations need huge amounts of computing power to snag a single coin, and to stay in the running, they all need to be running a set of complicated problems all at once. That uses a huge amount of energy every year — in 2018, researchers estimated that bitcoin used about as much energy as Ireland.
By contrast, Libra is designed so that an algorithm issues units of the cryptocurrency in proportion to the size of a company’s initial deposit into the system. That’s still a lot to keep track of, but it’s nowhere near as complicated as a mining operation. Instead, it’s more like… normal data centers. Now, data centers draw power, too. In fact, data centers accounted for 2 percent of the total US energy usage in 2014, a 2016 study published by the DOE found. And they’re also responsible for about as many carbon dioxide emissions as the airline industry. But despite those drawbacks, these specially designed warehouses of servers are the rocks on which tech giants like Facebook continue to build and expand their digital empire.
“Facebook or other companies will have to set up servers, will have to run the software, will have to validate transactions. But that’s not really anything different to running regular services for Facebook.com or for WhatsApp,” Gallersdörfer says.
A USEFUL WAY TO GENERALLY CONSIDER HOW TO MAKE DATA CENTERS LESS ENVIRONMENTALLY TERRIBLE
Facebook has made concerted efforts to make their centers more sustainable, but the energy demand prompted by Libra might be a useful way to generally consider how to make data centers less environmentally terrible. The easiest thing to do is make sure that the existing resources are used efficiently — so that might mean more efficient hardware. But it also means considering the vast amounts of water used to cool servers: in a lot of cases that fresh water flows through the system and gets discarded, a horrifying waste, especially in areas with water shortages.
One way to meet the challenge in a water-scarce world is to reuse water as often as possible, says Emilio Tenuta, vice president of sustainability at Ecolab. But water can’t be reused forever in cooling systems. As it gets heated and moves through the pipes, salts and other contaminants — think of scale from hard water forming in a bathroom — can build up in the machinery, making it less efficient. But by constantly monitoring and treating the water as it goes through a system, companies like Ecolab hope they can recirculate water through cooling systems as often as possible, reducing the amount of water used in data centers overall.
Making existing centers more efficient is great, but products on the scale of Libra could mean new data centers — and where they are matters. Companies could save themselves (and the world) a lot of environmental angst by simply looking for better locations to put data centers in the first place, Katrina Kelly-Pitou says.
THE AREA WHERE WE’RE FAILING, IN THE UNITED STATES, IS CLEANING OUR POWER SUPPLY
Kelly-Pitou, an urban systems strategist with architecture and engineering firm SmithGroup, says that companies should look for places with trained software engineers — to keep the servers running smoothly — and abundant, low-carbon power sources. By relying on a nearby hydroelectric dam, wind farm, or nuclear plant instead of coal or natural gas, data centers could dramatically cut their carbon footprint. That’s because ultimately, every data center relies on the energy grid. And that’s where many current data centers are falling short.
“The area where we’re failing, in the United States, is cleaning our power supply, and ensuring that we have clean energy to power the economic development that we want,” Kelly-Pitou says.
Libra hasn’t launched. We don’t know if it will take off. But for it to even get off the ground, it will need data centers — and developing greener data centers, and a lower-carbon energy grid to power them is something that could pay off no matter what.
submitted by VoltzUK to u/VoltzUK [link] [comments]

My attempt at an ELI5 for cryptocurrency to help my friends.

This is a long one so fair warning and no there is no tl;dr. I've only been at this for about 6 months and worked up this paper the other day for my friends who are interested but know very little about this. Hopefully whoever reads this can make in corrections as I am far from an expert.
Blockchain
Cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, Ether are all blockchains. Blockchains are basically a spreadsheet (LEDGER) that is duplicated multiple times across a network and updated regularly simultaneously. There is no centralized version of this ledger. It is hosted simultaneously by thousands/millions of computers. These ledgers will update on their own, Bitcoin as an example automatically checks itself every 10 minutes. Each of these 10-minute increment of transactions (in bitcoins case transactions would be sending or receiving bitcoins from one person to another for goods or services) are called BLOCKS. For these blocks to be confirmed, accepted, and updated to the ledger nodes are required.
Nodes (Mining/Forging)
A node is a computer running the blockchain software on the network. The blockchain software will automatically download the entire ledger of all transactions since its inception. At regular intervals, the software will take the transactions of a block (data on the ledger) and convert them into a mathematical puzzle to be solved by randomly chosen nodes (MINING). Mining requires powerful processors (typically GPUs) and substantial quantities of energy to receive mined tokens profitably. When a specific number of nodes solve the puzzle with the same answer they are basically confirming that the data on the block is accurate as multiple independent nodes found the same answer. When confirmed, the block gets added to the previous blocks making a chain of blocks aka a blockchain. As an incentive to run your computer as a node you are rewarded with TOKENS. If a single person or group of people wanted to manipulate the ledger, the amount of machinery and electricity used to achieve the majority of miners thus allowing you to manipulate the ledger is so exponentially expensive that it serves no reasonable purpose. This is an example of a Proof of Work Blockchain System (computer solves puzzle and rewarded with tokens)
Tokens
Tokens are part of the core of the blockchain. They are an incentive to validate transactions and create blocks. They gain intrinsic value based on the blockchain they are associated with. Some blockchains grant token holder’s different abilities. With Bitcoin, tokens are needed to pay for transaction fees. Others allow voting rights on how certain blockchain functions are managed. There is a limited amount of Bitcoin that will ever be released to nodes (21 million expected to be all be released by 2033) which also keep inflation from being a problem. Blockchains can create their platform with whatever number of tokens they would like and release them or create means to mine them as they see fit. Essentially, as with any other fiat money (currency that a government has declared to be legal tender NOT backed by a physical commodity), as adoption and trust increases the value of the token will increase. If most people accept Bitcoin for services and stores accept Bitcoin for goods than it is as good as the next currency.
Wallets
Whether you mine for tokens, are paid in tokens for goods or services or purchase tokens from a person or currency exchange you need a place to store them securely and a way to send and receive them. Cryptocurrency Wallets don’t store currency, they hold your public and private keys that interface with the blockchain so you can access your balance, send money and manage your funds. The public key allows others to send money to the public key only. A wallet that is "offline" (see Hardware or Paper below) cannot access funds or send money unless it is accessed with another form of wallet, either desktop, online, or mobile.
1) Desktop Wallet - Installed on your computer and are only accessible from that SINGLE computer. Very secure but if someone hacks your computer you are exposed. 2) Online Wallet - Run remotely (cloud based) and are far more convenient to access but make them more vulnerable as they are controlled by a third party and are also vulnerable to hacking attacks. Exchange wallets are online wallets but you are not in control of the private key. View it as a wallet that is lended to you so you can trade. The wallet is technically not yours. 3) Mobile - Ran on an app and are useful as they can be used anywhere including retail stores 4) Hardware - Private keys are stored on a tangible device like a USB drive. They can make transactions online but they are stored offline. Compatible with web interfaces and support many but not all currencies. To use, plug into a computer, enter a pin, send currency and confirm. Safest form of storage. 5) Paper - Basically a physical printout of your private and public keys. It is not stored online anywhere and the only way transactions can happen is if you transfer money with the help of an Online wallet.
Example of a Public Key = 1A684DbsHQKPVCWgaUsYdF4uQGwTiA9BFT Example of a Private Key = E9873D79C6D87DC0FB6A5778633389F4453213303DA61F20BD67FC233AA33262
Most wallets provide a Recovery Mnemonic Passcode that is a series of words (typically 12 to 24 words) in a specific order. If you lose your login information for your wallet you can supply the mnemonic passcode and retrieve your lost login information. If you lose your login information and your mnemonic passcode your wallet will be inaccessible and your tokens are lost to you. The above basically describes a first generation Blockchain Cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin. It is used basically as currency with no centralized entity regulating the release of additional currency and keeping the ledger of where the money is going secure and extremely safe from manipulation.
Second Generation Blockchain
The second generation blockchains sprung out of this environment with something more valuable. Utilizing the blockchain system to allow applications to be ran on top of a decentralized secure system. Instead of just recording transactions, contracts could be transmitted the same way. More complex transactions (SMART CONTRACTS) allow for things such as: - Funds to be spent only when a required percentage of people agree - Manage agreements between users (such as insurance) - Provide utility to other contracts - Store information about an application such as domain registration information or membership records This basically can allow applications to be ran on top of the blockchain system. This can cut out the middleman for many real-world applications (mortgages, banking, communications, security confirmations etc.)
Proof of Work/Proof of Stake
As I mentioned earlier, Proof of Work (PoW) requires nodes to solve a mathematical puzzle which is rewarded with tokens. Proof of Stake (PoS) is different, the tokens with proof of stake systems are pre-mined meaning they are all created when the blockchain system is created. Blocks are not verified by the typical method. The block validator uses the blockchain software to stake their tokens and are chosen based on specific factors depending on how many tokens the person holds and for how long. Depending on how many tokens they hold will restrict the quantity of blocks they can validate. If they own more they can validate more often but all validators will be chosen randomly keeping the rewards fairly distributed (unlike PoW which typically reward the first completed.) The blockchain still requires a mathematical puzzle to be solved but it is much easier than PoW requiring far less time and energy. If the blockchain has premined all of their tokens then new tokens cannot be mined for rewards in PoS. The reward for staking your tokens to be a validator is a portion of the transaction fee that is charged as part of normal transactions on the blockchain. That is why PoS miners are called forgers. If manipulation is attempted than their stake can be taken from their wallet adding more motivation to prevent data manipulation.
Fork
Some cryptocurrencies may need to update or upgrade the coding of their blockchain software. When this happens usually a fork occurs. This basically means the cryptocurrency splits into two separate cryptocurrencies. Because the nature of blockchain technology, they are decentralized and autonomous so the older version cannot be deleted or removed. If people choose to continue using the old version they can. For mining/forging purposes the nodes will need to choose which they will mine/forge and download the blockchain software on their computer to proceed. When the fork occurs, anyone holding tokens in the original currency will be given the same number of tokens in the forked currency. (When Bitcoin forked to Bitcoin Cash, anyone holding x amount of Bitcoin would receive a new wallet for Bitcoin Cash also containing x amount of Bitcoin Cash.) This is called a Hard Fork and all previous transactions are made invalid. There are also Soft Forks, in this case it is backwards compatible and all previous transactions are valid. This can result in two currencies but in most cases, it doesn’t as it is usually accepted by most miners/forgers because it is backwards compatible.
Exchanges
Online currency exchanges allow you to buy, sell or exchange fiat money (USD, EUR, etc) with digital currencies or in most cases digital currencies for other digital currencies. There are a large variety of different exchanges that are operated in multiple countries but there are around a dozen that the majority of cryptocurrency trading volume are present on. Not all cryptocurrencies will be listed on all exchanges, some have specific prerequisites to be listed on their exchange and there may be fees associated as well. Once your account is set up you will have a list of all available cryptocurrencies to trade. Each currency will have an associated online wallet with the public key address allowing you to send that specific currency to that wallet. (Many exchanges are having delayed or canceled identity verification, currency transfers and lack sufficient customer support due to the influx of new traders) Examples of top exchanges: 1) Coinbase (trades fiat) 2) GDAX (trades fiat) 3) Gemini (trades fiat) 4) Changelly (trades fiat) 5) Bittrex 6) Binance 7) HitBTC 8) EtherDelta 9) Bitfinex 10) Kraken 11) Bithumb 12) Bitstamp 13) Poloniex 14) OKEx
Sending/Receiving Tokens
All wallets have the ability to send digital currency to other wallets. The function is relatively easy, make sure the currency you are sending is going to the appropriate wallet for that currency. Ethereum tokens cannot be sent to a Bitcoin wallet for example. (The tokens aren’t actually moving location; the list of transactions/ownership is what is stored in the wallet). Triple check the wallet private key you are sending the tokens to. If you type the wrong address the tokens will be lost in nearly all incidents. Some mobile wallets allow you to scan a QR code that will automatically enter the public key rather than copying/pasting or typing out the public key.
Taxes
As of January 1, 2018 it appears that taxing on digital currency has changed. Every trade between any digital currencies (Bitcoin to Ether, Ether to Litecoin etc) will be a taxable transaction. If you hold the currency for longer than one year than you will pay capital gain tax when it is traded or sold (15%-20%) and if you sell or trade in less than a year you will have to add the profit to your taxable income to adjust your tax bracket.
Altcoins
Altcoins are basically any coin that is not Bitcoin. Most cryptocurrencies do not have a native blockchain (their own independent dedicated blockchain). Bitcoin, Ether, Ripple, Waves, NXT, Cardano all have their own native blockchain. Many other cryptocurrencies run on other cryptocurrency’s blockchains. Litecoin runs on Bitcoins blockchain, hundreds run on the Ethereum blockchain. These currencies act as smart contracts running on the adopted blockchain.
DApps (Decentralized Applications)
For a blockchain application to be considered a DApp it must be 1) Open source, code available to all 2) Decentralized, uses blockchain cryptographic tech 3) Incentive, must have tokens to fuel itself 4) Algorithm/Protocol, generates tokens and has a built-in consensus mechanism (mining/forging.)
There are 3 types of DApps, each basically piggybacks off the platform of the previous Type 1 – Have their own blockchain (like bitcoin) Type 2 – Use the blockchain of Type 1 DApps Type 3 – Use the protocol of Type 2 DApps
ICO (Initial Coin Offering)
Much like an IPO (Initial Public Offering) that offers stock in a private company to the public, an ICO raises money for new Cryptocurrency ventures. Typically, a minimum investment is required in the form of a cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin or Ether and the investor is given tokens of the cryptocurrency at a reduced cost. Due to the fact that ICO’s are so new, government agencies have not begun regulating these ventures making them extremely risky as anyone with a competent coder can create and market a cryptocurrency that can be used to swindle investors who aren’t cautious. The US government no longer allows its citizens to participate in ICO’s and if you are using a computer with an IP address located in the United States, ICO’s websites will not allow you to invest.
Research
1) Whitepapers – Each cryptocurrency will have their own dedicated websites and most will have a whitepaper that has a description of what their cryptocurrency is designed to do. 2) Roadmaps – Also on each cryptocurrency’s website, they tend to have a roadmap or timeline as to when they are planning to complete certain milestones be it added features to the blockchain or wallet or any other important events. 3) Coinmarketcap.com – List of every available cryptocurrency, the exchanges they trade on, market cap, trade volume, available tokens, newly created tokens etc. 4) Reddit.com (cryptocurrency subreddit) – Subreddits focused on cryptocurrency as well as specific subreddits focused on individual cryptocurrencies. Be cautious as many people on these sites are uninformed and/or are trying to manipulate the market by fooling others to buy or sell based on fraudulent information. 5) Bitcointalk.org – Forums specific to individual cryptocurrencies. There is a lot of self-marketing (bounties) on this site. Take what they say with a grain of salt 6) TwitteFacebook (Social Media) – Many times news from team members or the cryptocurrency’s social media page will break news before it is listed on any of the above-mentioned outlets. Find out who is working for the cryptocurrency you are interested in and start following the team’s social media. Don’t forget to look at their linkedin accounts if available, previous employment and behavioral history to confirm they are competent. 7) Github - Code from projects can be uploaded here and reviewed for issues and revisions.
Common Terms/Slang
Shilling – covert advertising, personally endorsing a token so as to manipulate the price to either recoup a loss or increase gains on a token the individual owns. FUD – Fear, Uncertainty, Doubt; another method to manipulate the price of a token the person owns by making others second guess their investment decision on a specific token. FOMO – Fear Of Missing Out; buying a token (usually after the price has already increased) hoping they haven’t missed the majority of a price increase. Shitcoin – A cryptocurrency that has become worthless overtime or a scam operation. To the Moon – Massive increase in a token’s price.
I'm sure there are probably revisions to be done on this as I am still getting my head around all of the concepts. Any help to this would be appreciated.
submitted by Truantlife to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

ECOCRYPTO

ECOCRYPTO
ECOCRYPTO
FOR GREEN CRYPTOCURRENCY MINING
FUTURE OF CRYPTOCURRENCY
DEPENDS ON ECOLOGICAL MINING
"CRYPTOCURRENCY DEPENDS ON ECOLOGICAL MINING"
Donate BTC to support awareness enquiry:
1EaSG3WmY5fRXedhy9tbbJK3tGftKp4sAZ
Sourcece: https://cryptobriefing.com/green-crypto-mining-38bn-future/
· Home
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· Green Crypto Mining Will Define The Industry’s $38bn Future
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ANALYSIS

Green Crypto Mining Will Define The Industry’s $38bn Future

Energy usage will drop by design thanks to these critical industry developments.

📷By Nick Hall On Aug 10, 2018
1,779
1
In March this year, the sky officially fell in for Bitcoin miners. With the slump in prices and the extraordinary energy consumption it takes to mine the coins, Fortune revealed that mining a Bitcoin cost as much as buying one. Green crypto mining wasn’t even on the radar for most people until earlier this year.
That was back in March and they were the good times. Morgan Stanley revealed in April that Bitcoin miners would lose money if Bitcoin slipped below $8,600, even with low electricity figures factored in.
A recent study by Coinshare showed that the numbers attributed to the Bitcoin mining industry have been grossly exaggerated and the energy consumption is approximately 50% of the claimed 70TWh. But the numbers are still too high in terms of the financial outlay and the environmental impact of mining cryptocurrency.
Mining doesn’t begin and end with Bitcoin – and although the consensus is (mostly) set in stone, the way we create the energy needed to extract the next part of the puzzle isn’t. Which is why green crypto mining is the ONLY solution to the diminishing returns issue: more cost, for less reward, will eventually lead to an abandonment of the mine, just as it did for gold miners in California in 1848-49.
We’re not looking for one single solution either. We need four separate ones:
  1. A lighter consensus algorithm
  2. Cloud-based cryptocurrency mining.
  3. Renewable, cheaper energy sources to support physical ‘mines’.
  4. Brutal consolidation in the mining industry.

What is cryptocurrency mining?

The Proof-of-Work (PoW) protocol was popularized by shadowy Bitcoin founder Satoshi Nakamoto, building on earlier work by a variety of computer scientists including Hal Finney, and it’s a two-stage process to validate transactions and keep a flow of Bitcoins entering the market. Blocks of data are parsed off and, with Bitcoin, they contain about 1MB. Each block is then locked and coded.
Miners then compete to solve the puzzle and provide the 64-digit hexadecimal key code that it then has to match with a corresponding ‘nonce’, numbers used only once, to claim the reward for unlocking the block and mine Bitcoins. There’s a small fee for validating the transactions, but the Bitcoin miners are really like the old gold miners and they’re after the big paydays.

Why is Bitcoin mining expensive?

In the old days, Bitcoin mining was easy. Back in 2009, a standard desktop computer could mine up to 200 Bitcoin a day. But speed is everything and Bitcoin mining turned into an arms race as Bitcoin soared and the well-funded miners went to war.
Companies like Bitmain, Bitfury and Vogogo spotted a gap in the market and brought professionalism to the Bitcoin mining industry. The Wild West days fell by the wayside and suddenly a standard computer chip would take 98 years to mine one coin, as the super fast rigs of the new breed simply stomped the casual miner into the dust.
The cryptocurrency mining industry even caused the great computer graphics card drought of 2017-2018 as demand for GPUs literally outstripped supply. Used cards were even selling above sticker price and the shelves in-store were stripped bare, but the big guns were already spending tens of millions of dollars to put these home brew operations out of business.
These aren’t computers anymore, they are mission control centers and the power it takes to keep them running is a serious issue for the company’s bottom line and the environmental lobby.
So the industry is looking for a number of different green crypto mining solutions, that will gel together in some haphazard way to form the future of the cryptocurrency market.
The main obstacles are:

1. A greener algorithm

It may be hard to visualize the blockchain itself, but we don’t need to. Technology almost always gets lighter, smaller and slimmer. The same needs to happen to block production.
Blockchain is middleware and it needs to be slimmed down, without sacrificing security or functionality. That’s an ongoing evolutionary process, as it was with smartphones, and the blockchain we’re using in 20 years will likely have little in common with today’s code.
Proof-of-Stake consensus algorithms have been pitched as one way of reducing crypto’s carbon footprint. Instead of competing for block rewards, producers would take turns, weighted by the size of their stake in the network.
Staking is unlikely to catch on in the Bitcoin community, but it has many supporters with Ethereum as well as other cryptocurrencies.. That would make the whole validation process more efficient and cheap.

2. Cloud-based cryptocurrency mining

There are mining firms that are still investing millions of dollars in physical equipment and taking on all the sunk costs, when the Cloud is simply taking over the world of advanced computing.
Cloud-based cryptocurrency mining companies are already selling packages to the general public and the Cloud offers increased security, speed and essentially a small slice of the world’s computing power, rather than the machines you buy, install and power up. It also potentially offers AI integration that could leave the traditional cryptocurrency miners hopelessly panning for gold in a dead river.
The Cloud has made self-driving cars and robots a reality. It can certainly ramp up the speed of calculations and leave even a multi-million dollar mining rig trailing in its wake.
The switch to Cloud-based mining is good news for the environment, too, as the power demands would move to localities with the cheapest energy. Without these wild spikes in energy consumption and without these concentrated mines, the main complaints about the industry will simply cease to be an issue.

3. Renewable, cheap energy for grand-scale mines

Cloud-based cryptocurrency mining looks like the obvious solution, but it’s the final cost that determines the methodology when it comes to crypto mining and there is more than one way to do this.
Technically, the likes of Elon Musk could turn the arid sub-Saharan scrubland into the biggest and most prosperous cryptocurrency mine in the world with a vast array of solar panels and Tesla PowerPack batteries to keep it running through the night.
Cheap land and free energy means that hardware would be the only major cost to consider in this instance. Alternatively, a State-sponsored mining firm in a smaller nation could easily co-opt hydroelectric or solar providers to work with them to reduce energy costs. Even the ones that use grid power can select the world’s cheapest nations and bulk buy energy in blocks.
Potentially, then, we could still have the grand-scale mines that bring economy of scale and environmentally-friendly energy production to the world of cryptocurrency mining.

4. Brutal consolidation

It does not matter how the industry develops, or if Cloud computing or giant mines are the future, the days of the home cryptocurrency miner are numbered.
Just like the mom and pop mines of the goldrush days gave way to corporate giants with drilling and excavation machinery that made the old pick and shovel look slightly ridiculous, the same will happen in cryptocurrency mining.
Competition will continue to grow, the margins will likely drop even further and the flagrant energy use of today’s cryptocurrency miners simply won’t be an option. Miners that don’t streamline their operations and adopt some form of green crypto mining process will simply run at a loss until they go out of business.
Bil Tai is the Chairman of Hul 8, the North American arm of Bitfury Group and one of the biggest suppliers of cryptocurrency mining equipment of the world. Even he expects just 5-10 giant mining companies to survive the impending cull.
“It’s totally different this year,” he told Bloomberg. “The bitcoin mining industry was this mysterious, dark, cottage industry. It’s about to grow up and scale institutionally.”
There’s a dark side to these tech giants emerging, as they will technically have the power to exert an influence on a coin’s value, not just its creation. That is a problem the industry will have to examine at some point. This simple danger, though, is not enough to turn back the tide of progress.
So, we can expect to see a handful of mining companies dominate the industry as they make the best use of the available technology.

Conclusion: Green Crypto Mining Isn’t An Option: It’s The Only Option

One way or another, the environmental issues that dog the cryptocurrency mining industry are set to disappear.
It will be the free market that drives down that energy usage, rather than regulations and sanctions. The days of the home crypto miner are simply coming to an end, though, as the industry matures and large companies descend and fight for dominance in what could become a $38 billion a year industry by 2025.
That comes with its own set of tradeoffs, especially for philosophical hardliners. Like it or not, a leaner, greener cryptocurrency mining process is just around the corner, and big business is going to create it.
ECOCRYPTO
FOR GREEN CRYPTOCURRENCY MINING
FUTURE OF CRYPTOCURRENCY
DEPENDS ON ECOLOGICAL MINING
"CRYPTOCURRENCY DEPENDS ON ECOLOGICAL MINING"
Donate BTC to support awareness enquiry:
1EaSG3WmY5fRXedhy9tbbJK3tGftKp4sAZ
submitted by yakutami01 to btcgreen [link] [comments]

Wealth Formula Episode 172: Ask Buck

Catch the full episode: https://www.wealthformula.com/podcast/172-ask-buck/
Buck: Welcome back to the show everyone we have a number of questions today on Ask Buck so I am gonna get with it right away the first question is from Beau Cannington. He’s a member of Investor Club and Wealth Formula Network. Here's his question.
Beau Cannington: How much of a negative impact do you think that a rising interest rate environment will have on our commercial real estate investments and specifically the syndication investments with Western Wealth Capital? Thank you very much.
Buck: So Beau good question especially on paper right makes a lot of sense that potentially rising rates could be problematic for multifamily real estate or really for any kind of real estate. But let's go back to basics first because I think it's important, a lot of people don't have a good enough understanding of this in the first place which is when does leverage help you in the first place when does it help to borrow money from the bank? Well leverage only really helps you if you're borrowing at a rate that is less than your effective cap rate and what I mean by effective cap rate is you know you're gonna constantly drive net operating income into a property if you're increasing value of the property if you're in a value-add situation. That's what we do in the Western Wealth Capital opportunities that you're talking about. But that rate at which you borrow has to constantly and always be above your effective cap rate otherwise it's gonna hurt you. All leverage does is to simply amplify the directionality of your profit or losses. So just like it makes you profit more if your effective cap rate is greater than your interest rate, if that you know that income drops to a point where now your cap rate is actually below the interest rate, it's gonna magnify your losses. So that's at a very basic level hopefully that makes sense if it doesn't real issen to it because it's critically important and for some reason you know a lot of people don't pay attention to that especially people who are just getting into real estate for the first time it's really important. Now let's talk about the idea of interest rates themselves I mean the one that most people are familiar with is the one that's on the news all the time. It's a Fed Funds rate you know people call benchmark rate whatever. It's the one that's set by the Federal Reserve and the way I think about the Fed Funds rate is that it's an indicator for whether or not the economy is healthy it's it's sort of a barometer when the rates are getting hiked the economy is in pretty good shape and the Fed is trying to prevent it from getting too hot and to you know potentially prevent inflation. On the other side when the you know Fed lowers rates, like it just did by the way, it signals some level of concern about the economy it you know suggests that maybe there's some deflationary activity going and suggest that there's some recessionary activity going on. You know ultimately the Fed rate is you know it's set by the Fed and it's it's a tool of monetary stimulus to try to control inflation and ultimately mitigate recessionary cycles so it's a way for the Fed to control the economy you know it's one of the ways that they try to control the economy one of the monetary pulse. Now the Fed Funds rate does not equate to mortgage rates I I hear a lot of people you know like on social media and stuff talking about had funds rate goes the perfect time for me to go shopper shop a loan or something like that and well you should know a little bit more than that if you're in the business of real estate and taking loans out but you know I mean I'm seeing like syndicators do that. The Fed fund rate really affects short-term and variable adjusted rates really it's really an indication of what's going on right now in this economy in the very short term. And mortgage rates of course then are far more complex mortgage rates reflect sort of a longer-term health of the economy and they're probably there's a lot that goes into them but probably the thing that you need to watch the most is the ten-year Treasury which is much more a reflection of you know the long-term rates what the market thinks to the markets gonna be in the future right so if there is a belief that there is you know inflation on the horizon you probably see those rates start to rise. Inflation tends to rise when the economy's you know hot so anyway now again so what you should be looking at is the 10-year Treasury now I'm giving you a little bit of background rather than just answering Beau’s question initially but the good news right now is that the Fed fund rate was actually cut so it's actually not going up anyway so we don't need to worry about that right now but what we we also had a big dip in the tenured Treasury so our mortgage rates are very favorable right now as well now that's interesting because that happened before the Fed cut rates you know we recently closed on something within our Investor Club and got really good rates and that was before the that was because the treasury took a dive before it took a dive right before you know the hope this whole thing in the last week or so couple weeks where there's actually a Fed rate. But let's move back again and you know to Beau’s question. Say mortgage rates were going up what would that mean and how would that affect our investments? Now presumably that would be a suggestion that the 10-year Treasury as we talked about was going up which would also be suggestive of an inflationary environment. Now here's where it's really helpful to be invested in real estate like multifamily real estate which is of course my sweet spot. Inflation also means that we raise rents more right so in other words as rates go up so to our rent. So the ten-year Treasury is reflective of inflation when we and so the rates go up but so do rents proportionally and so theoretically we should be in good shape and not worry about it too much because it's really just an adjustment for inflation if you think about it that way. Bottom line is for me personally I don't worry too much about rates when it comes to our Wealth Formula accredited investor opportunities that we're doing and one of the reasons for that is we are incredibly aggressive about value add. So we're constantly in decompression mode as well and we're you know we're locked in to some good rates here too so. Now in addition if you look at the speed at which you know some of these companies work like Western Wealth Capitals the one you mentioned and they're forcing equity into these assets like you know incredibly fast so you're in a dynamic mode of decompressing cap rates in real time and that effectively again de-leverages the asset altogether. So if you found that confusing, listen to it again. But bottom line is if you take nothing else away from this I would tell you that interest rates in general mortgage rates will reflect inflation. So if inflation is going up rates are gonna go up and vice versa and so they tend to cancel each other out don't worry about it that's what I would tell you. If anything rates going down might be potentially more of a concern simply because that's a much more of an indication of an economy that's not healthy. Now we're doing you know BC classed multifamily I still think we're positioned very well so again I don't worry about it too much. Okay let's see next question from Chris Odegard another Investor Club guy and also another Wealth Formula Network guy so Chris here you go.
Chris Odegard: Hey Buck. Chris Odegard here in Kent Washington. My question relates to asset classes. If I remember correctly from Tom Wheelwright he talks about four asset classes: paper or commodities, real assets, real estate real assets aka real estate and businesses. So I believe that you know if I'm a shareholder in coca-cola that's paper but I'm also a private shareholder in a number of small start-up businesses so because my ownership of private shares and small businesses constitute a paper asset or a business asset? And if that's still a paper asset you know what makes you a have what makes you have an investment in business since most of the time you know if you're an owner or part owner of a small non publicly traded business it's usually their share so anyway I'm kind of struggling with the distinction between paper and a business asset classification so appreciate your help on that. Thanks.
Buck: So Chris I thinkx first of all let's back up and just say you know the reality is that these are you know these are just definitions right and there's a gray area between them and we can use them to guide us a little bit as we appropriate things into the right quote-unquote basket but you know we shouldn't get hung up on them too much but let's go back and review the definitions right so what are what are paper assets. So well let's talk about what real assets are so real assets are physical assets right and the thing that they are known for is that they have intrinsic worth due to their substance and property so precious metals commodities real estate land equipment natural resources these all have some kind of intrinsic value to them whereas paper assets would be assets where ownership’s defined only by paper like as you mentioned stocks and currencies and bonds and things like that. The reality is that in in some cases like you're talking about the definitions might not be as useful it might be a better idea to simply ask yourself in a sort of a common-sense way well what is it that I actually own? You know if you own businesses that are not asset heavy lots of you know and what I mean by assets heavy is like you know lots of machinery, stuff that you could liquidate, it's probably fair to put it in the you know the paper side of things. On the other hand if you have a business that as a significant balance sheet of stuff that could be liquidated you might actually put it in you know the real asset bucket. But I will tell you in knowing yours what you're talking about you invest in a lot of startups I would say that I personally would probably never consider an investment limited partner investment in a start-up as a real asset I mean I think the bottom line is that most of those businesses are not going to have a significant amount of equity or collateral to back your debt so there's not a lot to liquidate there's not a lot of intrinsic value in those businesses other than their ability to produce income. So that's where I would put that. Now what gives real estate and precious metals let's go back to that real status well it's ultimately again their inherent value. that it can't really be erased the way a stock price can go to zero. Or frankly if you talk about businesses what happens if the business that you're invested in Chris what if that goes to zero right? If there's no profit if there's no nothing to distribute etc it's not worth anything anymore right so that that to me is probably the biggest thing to distinguish. Although I should bring up I keep thinking about this as we're talking that you know I was listening to the Peter Schiff they still like to listen to I think he's a smart guy just you know he's a little stubborn and he's always thinking the this guy is falling which I don't I don't agree with him but you know he's on this big rampage against Bitcoin and he's been debating all these people about gold versus Bitcoin which I actually think it's kind of a silly debate because I think the gold and Bitcoin people should sort of you know be on the same side but I think you know it might be in part because Peter sells gold and it's a good opportunity to get in front of people, but one of his arguments about gold is that the reason that it has value is that it has intrinsic properties and those intrinsic properties are that it can be used you know to melt down and make stuff and I think there's true but the problem with this argument there in my opinion is that seriously for those of you who are out there like owning gold have you've owned a few ounces of gold and you store it somewhere are you seriously owning it because you know because you might be able to use it sometime or because somebody might be able to use it or are you using it because somebody thinks it has a value? I would argue that the reason you own it in most cases unless you're like a big jewelry buff or whatever is because somebody because you or you want somebody else to you know at some point pay you more for that then what you bought it for so in that respect it's not a whole lot different from like Bitcoin right like you know people the value of gold it has to do with the fact that it also has a monetary value it's really seen that way if you took that out of it and all of it was just a matter of it being jewelry it would not be worth as much as it is but anyway that's my take on that a little unrelated but I thought I would throw in that commentary. Next question let's see is from Ramin Rafie here we go.
Ramin Rafie: Hi Buck. I'm a physician general practitioner. I've been out of residency for about decade now. I have been an employed physician working for a larger corporation making house calls and a hospice director for their large healthcare organization which actually has recently been bought by an insurance company, that's a whole nother story. I actually went to medical school in California. And I've always wondered if it's feasible for me to open up my own kind of practice I don't know enough about the tax structures reimbursement etc, etc. I understand insurances are a big problem and you have to hire a lot of staff that's a waste of resources to strike to insurances but I was debating if solo practitioner doable perhaps direct primary care and if so is one better off just doing a cash face back to this and the legal structure of either having an LLC or an S corp or C Corp I don't know if you can operate on that that's gonna be I guess I need to talk to it accounts it's about that I figured I'd ask you and you might know you might not but I enjoy listening to your podcast it's amazing how many physicians up there are in the same boat. Thanks great time.
Buck: Alright so we do have a lot of physician listeners non-physicians to probably about in case you're wondering it's probably about but not just physicians but health care people right so you know physicians dentists and you know you know high doctors and you know all sorts of stuff, chiropractors and that's probably because well I've had a healthcare background myself on doing a few different kinds of surgery and stuff like that but thanks for the question. I'm gonna try to I mean there's a lot there and I think honestly the truth of the matter is I'm not necessarily an expert on all of these issues but you know some of the things I can answer I think will be relative relatively useful to anybody who's thinking about going on their own. First of all I'd say that if you're starting your own thing you know it an LLC is generally going to always be the best structure for a small business for maximum flexibility you can take, if for some reason you want to be taxed as a c-corp you could where you do an S selection so that's pretty easy. The answer your question of you know can you do it the answer is absolutely yes. There are solo practitioners out there now and you can do it and you could probably do it better and that's always generally been my philosophy when starting businesses usually I don't start businesses I'm you know I don't start businesses that have not in some way shape or form shown that they can be a success, I usually rip off somebody's idea and then pivot a little bit add a little bit something and executed and so I think to the extent that there are plenty of sole practitioners out there in California still I think it absolutely can be done. You know so your question about cash versus insurance based medicine just keeping it brief I'll tell you that it's not really an expertise of mine but by but what I can tell you is that coming out of the door with any business if it's just a cash business you're gonna have to advertise like crazy and you're gonna have to run it like a business which not everybody is ready for so the nice thing for physicians and dentists sometimes is that you know if you do take third party payers like you know these insurance companies they drive patients to your door so especially in the area of primary care there's a shortage so I don't think you'd have any trouble if you took insurance getting filled up really quickly and succeeding. Now as far as advice on how to move forward in general first you know again in this applies anybody who's starting a business and anything in my opinion, first of all finding somebody who's doing what you you know you want to do in another market and kind of copy them if you can reach out to them even better if they're not in a competing market but find in you’re case find a you know solo practitioner market that's similar to what you're trying to do and is showing a success and you know see if they're willing to spend some time with you I would offer to pay them because everybody's helpful until it's like damn I'm busy and this guy wants me to help him. But I think if you say hey now you get a successful thing there I'm looking for some help and you know looking for some consulting from a successful practice it might be useful. Another option of course is to go straight to a consultant and again this applies to every business in my opinion. Of course there's a lot of you know consultants out there. I had one for my first practice ultimately it was a cosmetic surgery business and again I ran this thing not like a medical thing, I didn't take any third-party insurance and stuff but I marketed like crazy I knew nothing about running a business or marketing when I started this the business I set out to start ended up looking nothing like the one I ended up with. What I ended up with was a lot better because I learned a lot on the job. But a lot of the back end things whether it's medical whether it's you know any kind of business or the same right I mean you've got to figure out how do you pay bills how do you set up all the systems accounting payroll and that for me where the consulting was like a really useful thing and I'm you know at the time I think I must have paid like twenty five thirty thousand dollars for and it seemed really expensive but I can tell you in any start-up situation you are much better off spending some money up front with someone holding your hand getting you started quickly and you know I have been you know. I literally have friends I have a couple of friends who've been trying to start up their own practices from multiple years now they could have been up and running in like three months if they just had paid somebody to get it done. So don't be that person you know anyway that's a message for everyone really if you have a problem, now remember this if you have a problem that you can write a check to someone to fix, you don't have a problem right? So that's the way you deal with this stuff don't spend all your time trying to deal with stupid little problems think of yourself as a you know is a thoroughbred right I mean you save yourself for you know high-value tasks. If you mess around and try to do everything yourself you're gonna end up worse I pretty much guarantee it, that goes for anyone starting any kind of business for the first time. So finally I would just say that I don't know a single I don't know a single health care provider in particular I know there's a lot of you out there with your own practice that once you have your own thing would ever go back to working for someone else or who'd ever want to go back for working for someone else, I know some of you have done it after you've sold your practice which is different you sitting on a huge chunk of cash but if you have any sort of entrepreneurial spirit and like the idea of not having limits on the upper end I would highly encourage it. All right so hopefully that's helpful and you know it's broadly I think it's broadly applicable to a lot of people who have ever contemplated any kind of entrepreneurial activities. So let's see the last one that's an actual voice one so let's do that from Ravi.
Ravi Ghanta: Hi buck this is Ravi Ghanta I just wanted to say thank you for all of your hard work and for providing such valuable information to this community. As part of the investor I've gained so much knowledge from you as well as from your guests on your podcast. Unfortunately I have not been able to attend the Meetup and I won't be able to go to the next meetup in Dallas in September, however I was wondering if you would consider creating a directory of some sort where those who are willing to provide their name their mailing address email address or even phone number to create a community where we can interact with each other you know perhaps by having this information we can even meet up with each other in different places informally, we can also discuss things you know we may all many of us are in the medical field and other specialties or other aspects of business and crafts developing contacts in that way just a thought. But once again thank you for your insightful information and I look forward to continuing to work with you. Thank you.
Buck: All right thanks Ravi. Ravi again is a member of the investor group now I don't think Ravi's part of Wealth Formula Network and that could be part of the confusion or not confusion but part of the question you answer the question which is, is there community that you could join or have you know or have some additional contact. The first thing I'm going to tell you there is that's really what Wealth Formula Network was really all about. So Wealth Formula Network is the online private community we have you know a very strong community there are a lot of people who are really just interested in connecting with one another it is of course that started out with the course and the course was with you know with Tom Wheelwright, Ken McElroy real estate guys bunch of guys I know sort of us gives you the bases gives you the foundation for things that we talk about and then we have these bi-weekly phone calls these bi-weekly phone calls are very useful they're not just phone calls they're zoom phone calls zoom video so we can see each other it's very personal and we have very in-depth conversation, people who are on in well formula Network often create relationships off line off community and that's certainly an option for you. In terms of online communities I would say that I probably wouldn't do anything else and the reason being that anytime you preside over an online community you kind of have to keep an eye on it and I I have well formula Network and that's really all I really want to focus in on I don't really want to you know monitor other sites. As far as you know people putting their information out and stuff I don't necessarily have a problem with that the thing that I worry about is if it's anywhere that people can access, I worry about your privacy because you know we have an extremely robust audience here including you know an accredited investor list of over a thousand people and if there's some like you know advisors registered advisors or you know people who are trying to get to those people they will spam you like crazy if they ever got a hold of that. But Ravi let me think about it because there could be a way to do you know to what you're talking about to a certain extent you know we certainly like I said we certainly already do this kind of thing and within Wealth Formula Network if that's of interest you check it out WealthFormulaRoadmap.com I think you'd probably really enjoy that if you enjoy the show. So all right I don't have any more video I don't have any recorded questions I have a couple of written ones I'm going to get to those the first one says is from Robert McLeod. He says I've been listening your podcast for the last couple years now I know you're a huge proponent of investing in real estate assets especially multifamily but I can't remember you've ever discussed mobile homes. I was wondering if you've looked into investing in or thought of mobile home park space. Thanks for the informative podcast. So it's a sensitive thing because I know there's a lot of people were interested in that people listen to this and friends of mine who are involved in this but you ask I'll answer. To be honest I'm not a big fan of that space right now here's why the cap rates on these things are approaching multifamily real estate right multifamily can always be improved significantly and attract higher level tenants and then areas get gentrified, they get improved I mean there's some improvement ability in mobile home parks right but it's really capped I mean think about it at some point you don't want to live in a damn mobile home anymore right. so here's a good example of you know how multifamily doesn't really have on that cap Chicago Lincoln Park is one of the like fanciest parts of Chicago's really expensive jam-packed full of mansions and stuff now, but there's also a bunch of apartment buildings that are over a hundred years old and you know forty years ago Lincoln Park was an absolute dump and it was dangerous and no one wanted to live there and then it got gentrified and all these places that were probably low income housing are now these incredibly luxurious apartments have been upgraded like crazy and now they are you know now they're multi-million dollar asset selling at ridiculous cap rates. Now tell me how do you do that with a mobile home community? You can't right. So at some point if people are doing well they want to move out of a mobile home park so you can't keep raising rents and expect people to live there so that's one reason so now so if you're capped on an appreciation of rents it's gonna cap your equity upside so now the syndicators out there that I'm seeing especially on the limited partners side are giving returns that frankly are inferior to what we're getting in multifamily an investor club by a longshot I know some of you like this area but I don't and I sure as hell would never invest in a limited partnership like this for returns that are less than double-digit again that's just me though. So finally let me just say this, my philosophy right now in general, buy quality assets don't buy crap okay. I see people posting stuff on Facebook about single family you know Class C Class D homes they bought we're supposed to cash flow like crazy and they you know all they have is problems now you know the idea is that these things might look good on numbers but when you add in the capex and paying for damages and you tenants I mean you may not cash flow at all people are losing money on this stuff left and right so there's a reason why these numbers look so good on paper because they're not good investments and people are trying to sell you them so bottom line is I'm not saying that mobile home parks are you know bad for everyone. I'm just saying that I personally look at the alternative and the alternatives from me are better. I prefer to focus on high quality assets and markets that are growing quickly right. I mean to me I mean it may be boring and repetitive what I do but I can tell you from personal experience it works and I think chasing yield in the idea of going to lower quality assets are going to tertiary markets is a very very bad idea because those are the markets those are the areas in my view that are going to suffer the most if and when there's a significant recessionary activity or market turnaround so hopefully that answers that. Next question Mark Dvorak. Hello can you talk about on your podcast about real estate professional? I feel like it's the ultimate green card to play in real estate as passive losses are you limited? Everyone only talks about this powerful designation briefly. Like the 750 hour rule, can two people count towards those? What are the max deductions and then he says for LP is what are the max deductions one can get without being a real estate professional, a show detailing all these options. Well let me just be brief about this, the reason people are briefed about it is because for the most part there the definition of real estate professional is this ok 750 hours of documented actual work in real estate like not just being a limited partner but you know looking for real estate acquiring you know talking to people whatever you got to have that 750 hours per year and it can't be two people no it has to be one person and you can't have anything that you're doing more of so it's not I've heard some people say they're gonna try to do it with a full-time job I just don't recommend it I think the IRS is gonna not take you seriously in that situation but you know you could try. In that situation of course the losses there's no cap to your losses. The beauty of it is what what you're talking about is say you have a spouse who has a W2 income that's active income but as you as a professional real estate professional all of the passive losses that you generate through depreciation where most people who are not real estate investors can only offset those against passive investments, you can offset that against active active income because your losses as a real estate professional your what would be passive loss has become activated. So if you've got $100,000 loss from real estate depreciation you could offset you know your hundred thousand dollars of your Weiss active income because you're filing jointly right. So that's that's the Holy Grail you're right I think it's a big deal and so but that's really all there is to it. I mean you have to find a CPA who can guide you on this you know I would recommend you know for somebody from WealthAbility and pretty much anybody there's gonna tell you all the right rules but really the issue with the that is you got to find a CPA who's going to tell you how to do it and then stand by you in in the event of an audit. An audit not it's not a bad you know it's not the end of the world it happens anybody's making money you gotta have somebody who is actually you know going to defend that successfully. So anyway that's it in terms of the caps about you know being a limited partner and what are some of the maximum deductions you can get without being a real estate professional the honest truth is that I don't I don't know that there's any really maximum deductions for real estate I mean listen if you have a hundred thousand dollars or two hundred thousand or a million dollars of passive income and you have those losses you have passive losses out of the same amount you could deduct it all so there's no cap at all. I mean the only thing I think there's a cap on I think charitable giving is about fifty percent you know charitable giving fifty percent but you know and then and then there's all your typical things that I don't you know I don't really get into about you know the basic accounting deductions and things like that for other things but I'll tell you from the standpoint of real estate there really is no cap on deductions, it's just you know it's what you have whatever if you're in the passive column as is a non real estate professional you could deduct all that and then the active side you could deduct all of your depreciation against all of your income. So that's pretty straightforward. Okay last question and it's from Betty and she said Buck I heard you talking about a bad drug reaction you had a Minneapolis. What was the drug that gave you the bad reaction yeah so let me let me tell you about that I am those last show I talked about that was my near-death experience thing where I thought I was gonna die, listen to this show you'll get the whole story but bottom line is as it turned out it was a CBD tincture. And I took some CBD for my back in in Santa Barbara and it worked really well for me and then I don't know what was in this bottle that I bought but it just gave me some sort of crazy out-of-body experience and I'm it wasn't like being stoned okay I I've been to college I know what that feels like was something was very wrong, anyway it was the CBD it's a long story. Bottom line is if you are interested in that story and how what I came about listened to show where I talk about this in the last show I think it's probably last week according where this is and you will you'll hear about that. By the way, I'll say that you know riffing off that last show I'm looking again those vintage cars to things that mattered the most of lessons that I had there were to make sure to take care of your family so look at Wealth Formula Banking make sure you you know get into that and and and try to you know align your investments with legacy to a certain extent that's one of my takeaways the other one was to try to have a little bit of fun here and and don't always push it away into delayed gratification. Okay that's it for the questions today and we will be right back.
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Choice of Entity: Legal Concerns Associated With Founding a Mining Business

Hey everyone, I just wrote something up about the nuances associated with forming a mining business in the United States. It's meant to help people comply with tax reporting requirements in the most business-owner friendly way possible. As always, please consult with your accountant and/or lawyer before acting on any of this information, it's meant to be used as a resource, not as legal advice. I'll be writing up more legal-related news like this in the future, if you'd like more info, let me know and I'll give you the URL of the website I'm working on (still in development but will eventually have lots and lots of useful info like this).
*Please keep in mind I am NOT a lawyer (I am in law school, but I have zero credentials as of yet). This should NOT be relied on as your exclusive source of legal information.
Without further ado:
-------------|Choice of Entity: Legal Concerns Associated With Founding A Mining Business|-----------
You're probably wondering, what is the most efficient way to structure a new mining business. While the facts do vary, in the most instances, the answer is as an S-Corporation. Odds are, you're either thinking about setting the business up as an LLC or an S-Corp. Although many think the tax consequences are the same because these are both pass through entities, this assumption is false.
S-Corporations are usually going to the be the most efficient tax vehicle for a new mining business. The reason for this is self-employment tax.
LLC co-venturers must pay self-employment tax, in addition to their normal individual rate tax, of approximately 17% if they provide a 'service.' Mining is a service!
-------------------------------------------|Why is Mining A 'Service'?|------------------------------------------
At first glance, mining may seem like a passive activity. All you do is plug in the miner and it runs in the background all by itself with little to no maintenance required. Where's the service?
The easiest way to conceptualize mining as a service is to think about the actual passive version of investing in whatever cryptocurrency one plans to mine. Truly passive cryptocurrency investing simply entails buying a cryptocurrency on an exchange and holding it with the hope of turning a profit. Unlike mining, passive cryptocurrency investing requires no specialized hardware, limited internet connectivity, and minimal power inputs (just the amount required to use your computer to access the internet to buy/sell the cryptocurrency).
Unlike investing in cryptocurrency, mining is a business like activity (although in certain instances, it may only constitute hobby income; see section 183 of the Internal Revenue Code and the associated Treasury regulations for more information) that utilizes high tech machinery to solve a variety of complex equations and hash functions. In exchange for solving these equations, miners are rewarded with blocks of cryptocurrency that function as rewards. The cryptocurrency network benefits from miners (unless using a pure Proof of Stake framework, but that is outside the scope of this article) because miners process network transactions in a way that helps secure network stability and security.
To hammer the point home, Bitcoin would collapse without miners. Think about the magnitude of that statement. Mining is an essential service for a multi-billion dollar asset class that benefits the national investing public AND the international investing public. Thus, mining is a service.
-------------------------------------|Why Does It Matter if Mining Is A Service?|-------------------------------
Knowing that mining is considered a 'service' is important when deciding what sort of limited liability entity to use when forming your client's mining business because it drastically affects their future tax liability.
------------------------------|Self-Employment Tax Implications of Operating a LLC|-------------------------
LLCs are generally seen as desirable entities for new businesses because of lax corporate governance requirements, extreme freedom of contract, and favorable pass-through tax treatment (unless the founder elects to 'check-the-box' to be taxed as a corporation on the appropriate documents). Additionally, single member LLCs are seen as disregards and have a special tax treatment that will be discussed further elsewhere. For the purposes of self-employment tax, however, single member LLCs (a/k/a disregards) are afflicted by the same malady as member managed LLCs and Manager Managed LLCs--self-employment tax!
Self-employment tax has an effective rate of roughly 17% (check these numbers). This tax is ADDED to the LLC member's pass-through tax liability on their tax returns.
The governing statute (for self-employment related taxes) is 26 U.S.C. § 1402(a) and the regulations can be found at 26 C.F.R. 1.1402(a)-1, 1.1492(a)-2, and 1.1492(a)-3.
This means that if a LLC co-venturer is in the highest tax bracket, they will be paying 37% in individual income tax on all earned income (whether or not distributed to members) PLUS 17% self-employment tax for an EFFECTIVE TAX RATE OF 54%!!!!!!!
Even if a shareholder is only in the 25% individual income-tax rate, they will still have an effective tax rate of 42%, way too high to justify!
Note that, at time of writing (and since 2015), the self-employment tax (when required to be paid) must be paid on the first $118,500 of "combined wages, tips, and net earnings;" note that the business will still be responsible for 2.9% Medicare tax on all self employment income (including all income about $118,500). [cites directly below].
See Self-Employment Tax (Social Security and Medicare Taxes), IRS, https://www.irs.gov/businesses/small-businesses-self-employed/self-employment-tax-social-security-and-medicare-taxes (last accessed Jan. 21, 2018); see also Tony Nitti, S Corporation Shareholder Compensation: How Much Is Enough?, THE TAX ADVISOR (Aug. 1, 2011), https://www.thetaxadviser.com/issues/2011/aug/nitti-aug2011.html#fnref_6.
--------------------------|Self-Employment Tax Implications of Operating a S-Corporation|-----------------
Forming an S-Corporation instead of an LLC offers many tax benefits for potential mining businesses. For example, S-Corporations offer the same beneficial tax pass-through treatment as LLCs. S-Corporations also offer the ability to AVOID ANY SELF-EMPLOYMENT TAX WHATSOEVER (in theory)!!!!!!!
DISTRIBUTING INCOME
S-Corporations have three main ways of distributing income: (1) employee salaries and payments to other creditors; (2) expansion / improvement expenses; and (3) making distributions to shareholders.
EMPLOYMENT TAXES
It is generally disadvantageous to pay yourself a salary when running an S-Corp. because salaries come with concomitant payroll tax requirements (the payroll tax is in place of a self-employment tax). Generally, shareholders prefer receiving distributions because no payroll tax is imposed on such distributions. Furthermore, these distributions are often tax free events if the shareholder has a positive basis in the corporation in excess of the amount of money being distributed to the shareholder.
Rev. Rul. 59-221, 1959-1 C.B. 225 holds that a shareholder’s undistributed share of S corporation income is not treated as self-employment income.
BASIS
As a shareholder receives tax free distributions, their basis decreases dollar-for-dollar measured against tax-free received. Once a shareholders basis is zero, they will owe taxes on any additional income earned that year. Shareholders will pay long-term capital gain rates (in most instances) on distributions in excess of the shareholder's basis in the S-Corporation.
------------------------|SHAREHOLDERS PERFORMING SERVICES FOR THE CORPORATION|------------------ S-Corporation employee shareholders (i.e., a shareholder who also performs employee-like functions for the S-Corp) MUST be paid a "REASONABLE SALARY" for the performance of "SUBSTANTIAL SERVICES."
For years, there was very little guidance on the meaning of "reasonable salary" or "substantial services." Luckily, we now have a much better idea of what these terms mean. For a great overview of case law and administrative rulings governing these issues, check out this article (also cited above) entitled S Corporation Shareholder Compensation: How Much Is Enough? (written by a CPA, MST).
Essentially, within the context of a cryptocurrency mining business, your clients can avoid employment taxes (in most cases) because there is very little your clients will be doing that would qualify as substantial services. The term "substantial services" has been interpreted to require a fair amount of work (case law examples often talk about someone working for 35 hours a week, 52 weeks a year as constituting "substantial services"). Running a small to medium scale mining business is a fairly barebones operation.
---------------------------------|Fundamentals of Running a Mining Business|---------------------------------
STARTING UP
Most mining operations require only the following startup materials: (1) mining hardware; (2) internet connection; and (3) adequate power source. These are the minimum components required for a mining business. Medium to large scale mining operations will likely also require some sort of separate area (i.e., signing a commercial lease) to put the mining hardware as it can get quite loud with $50,000 or more of equipment running on a non-stop basis.
The mining business operator need only set up his mining hardware once and maybe troubleshoot occasionally or add/upgrade a machine. While setting up a miner can sometimes be a pain in the rear, it seldom takes more than a couple hours (keep in mind, this estimate is for businesses using commercial ASIC miners; people building their own miners warrant special considerations due to extreme time commitments required for such build-outs).
PRINCIPAL FUNCTIONS
As the principal function of the business is to solve transactions with complex hashing functions only solvable with specific computerized technology, the other duties associated with running a mining business are largely administrative, can be easily automated, and require only minimal supervision and monitoring. These other duties include: (1) sending mined coins from the mining pool to their wallet; (2) recording the value of a mined coin at the time it is mined (or transferred from the mining pool to the miner's business wallet if done on a consistent incremental basis); (3) keeping accurate financial records; (4) paying overhead costs; (5) occasionally logging into mining pool or miner IP address to ensure miner is running properly; (6) occasionally research new equipment for future purchases; and (7) make occasional but simple business decisions regarding whether to reinvest profits or distribute them to shareholders.
TOTAL HOURS WORKED (WEEKLY BASIS)
In the author's experience (running a very small three miner mining business), the average amount of time it takes to get a commercial ASIC miner running and to join a mining pool is about one hour of research and three hours of tinkering (and this was for someone with little previous experience in such matters) for a total of four hours per miner, plus or minus two hours depending on the type of miner and person. In terms of the other tasks associated with running a mining business, the author estimates that a total of roughly 20 hours per year is the maximum amount of work required to operate a small mining business. A medium-sized mining business in a commercial building should expect to spend between 10 and 50 hours per year performing employee-like tasks. A large-scale mining operation's employee-like annual hour requirements will vary substantially depending on the business owners' automation and efficiency skills but may reasonably range anywhere between 10-200 hours.
Looking at the above numbers, regarding hours spent performing employee-like tasks, it is relatively simple to figure out if the shareholders of a mining business may end up performing substantial services (see S-Corp info in section above) for the corporation. For small businesses, such as mine, the mining operator may only spend a maximum of 0.3846 hours per week (20 hours per year divided by 52 weeks) working on employee-like tasks. It is safe to assume 0.3846 hours per week does not constitute "substantial services." As such, no reasonable salary need be paid to the shareholder performing this amount of work.
For medium-sized mining businesses, the average amount of hours worked per week may range (based on 10-50 hour annual estimate provided above) between 0.1923 hours per week and and 0.9615 hours per week (# of hours per year divided by 52 weeks). Once again, it is safe to assume that 0.9615 hours per week (the highest end of the average) does not constitute "substantial services." As such, no reasonable salary need be paid to the shareholder performing this amount of work (especially if this amount of work is spread out over multiple shareholders).
For large-scale mining businesses, a special evaluation will be necessary as setup may require a substantial amount of upfront effort and may skew the number of hours being worked. Additionally, it is possible for the amount of employee-like annual hours to vary substantially year-to-year which would cause the corporation's employment tax liabilities to vary accordingly. If we assume that the 10-200 hour estimate provided above is reasonable, we can calculate an average weekly hourly output of between 0.1923 hours per week and 3.84 hours per week (# of hours per year divided by 52 weeks). If a single employee is performing 3.84 hours of work per week, it is possible this constitutes "substantial services" when performed on a consistent basis over a continuous 52-week period. Contra Davis v. United States, No. 93-C-1173 (D. Colo. 1994) (holding that an average work week of 12 hours per week does not constitute substantial services). That said, it is entirely possible that 3.84 hours per week may fall well below the standard established by Radtke v. United States, 712 F. Supp. 143 (E.D. Wis. 1989) (distinguished on other grounds) (holding "where the corporation’s only director had the corporation pay himself, the only significant employee, no salary for substantial services . . . [h]is ‘dividends’ functioned as remuneration for employment."). As always, do your own research and advise your clients accordingly. The sources identified in this article should steer you in the right direction.
Keep in mind that hiccups happen in business, and sometimes, a mining business may require long and consistent employee-like working hours by the shareholder-operator (i.e., in the event of unexpected problems). In these cases, the general principles elucidated above become muddled. As hours increase in an upward fashion, the more likely it becomes that a shareholder may need to be paid a "reasonable salary." Make sure your client is aware of this and have them call you if they anticipate working substantially more hours than expected in any given year.
Should your client encounter an unexpected and substantial increase in weekly hourly requirements, one possible option to avoid incurring employment tax liabilities is to break up the total amount of work among as many shareholders as possible to keep individual hours low. Please note that the IRS may take umbrage at this sort of gamesmanship and audit your client (please note that I have not researched this tax position; it is possible existing case law or Treasury Regulations already explicitly allow or disallow this; as always, do your own research).
Davis v. United States, No. 93-C 1173 (D. Colo. 1994) (pertains to hours worked and duties performed)
One case, Davis v. United States, No. 93-C-1173 (D. Colo. 1994), provides strong support for the position that S-Corporation shareholder mining operators, in most instances, are unlikely to be considered to have provided substantial services requiring reasonable compensation.
In Davis, the taxpayer is a S-Corporation shareholder who performed "part-time clerical duties for the company, including paying bills, submitting invoices, making bank deposits, and communicating with independent contractor truck drivers." Ms. Davis also made business decisions for Mile High and took a few business trips.
Ms. Davis was not paid a salary for her performance of these duties. Rather, Ms. Davis was paid in shareholder distributions. The IRS argued that such shareholder distributions were improper as the income received should have been classified as salary income as it was actually compensation for performance of substantial services.
Davis held for the taxpayer voiding the IRS's imposition of employment taxes by holding that such taxes were assessed in a manner that was arbitrary and capricious.
If Davis can be reasonably relied on (make your own judgment), most S-Corporation mining business shareholders will not be required to pay themselves a salary. Figure out your facts and apply the information above accordingly!
submitted by NicoRatkowski to CryptoMiningTalk [link] [comments]

Hammered from the Airport's Croutons.

I'M SORRY I DIDN'T SEE YOU THERE???? ARE YOU SURE THAT YOU WANT TO PURCHASE THIS BOEING??? Retailers are concerned that the recent crash will affect more than just the local population. The appropriate researchers were contacted at the time of arrival, yet we have heard no response. It was horrible! The surged company is a long time dealer of delicious pipe dreams that span across millions of acres, and they promise nothing short of uniform success in their services and practices. However, things may have taken a turn for the better when the investor decided to drop the bass.
 
It only took a few seconds later for everyone in the room to figure out how to use metric instead of imperial, and the SI prefixes were flourishing in the field, holding hands like newlyweds and laughing across the machinery that lay in the puddles.
 
I͔̼̱̣̬ͭ ̫̞͕̩̝w̫̯̰ͧą̫n͕̠̩̕t̖̩̩̩̣̹͓ͯ͋͛̈́ͪ̐ ̸̦̫͔̦̟̝͇̆t̟̲̞̝̯̜̀̐̑͛̄̕o̸̱̖͈̅̓̓̃͛ ̳͚̠͈̰̉̒ͅr͗ͫ̉͆e̸͔̗͕̟ͯ̆̐̊ǎ̧̱͖̱̺̫̜ḍ̤̻̣͔͊̾̒̉ ̟̺ͪ̂̌t̲̱̥͖͑͆͌̓ͥh̦͙̝̬̣̻̗̾̓̾͐ĭ̪̼̼͖ṣ̢͎͌̇͋̄ ̩͚͇̼͔͓̺̓͑͞f͑̆͆ͣ́o̰̻̯̹͖̓̒̆͛̊ͅr̼͉̩̟̪ͣ̑̐ͦ̈́͆ͤ ̾ͤṃ̨̟͍̼̱̲̭ͩ̇ẏ̰̹̫̫̹̪ͥͬ̄ͪ͗͠ ̿͆̿͠o̬͎͈̻ͯ̎́́́ͥw͙̦̼̭͎̟͍ͯͣ̚nͣ̍̏̂̓ͤ ̸̭͔̦͈̭̓͋̇ͮ̄ş̼̼͉̻̹̮͗͒̇ͨa̷̖͖͑ͫ̇ͯ̌k̂͒̆̃ͧ̃e̦̽ͥ̿̓͜.͈̙̥ͣ͗
 
Bottled up inside me is a piece of what's mine. Driven by the sea side, it will not turn back the time. My bitcoin wallet. I CAN SEE CLEARLY. I CAN SEE YOU. I CAN SEE EVERYTHING NOW. Many of us abide by the capacity of no one being able to log and monitor our every crouton, but cretins make it so surveilled that your bickering is no longer deemed appropriate.
 
Never in my life have I come across such behaviors that mark something so unfathomable that not even the salmon will want to flow freely across it with their usual shameless air. Apropos the units that don't want to continue this game, I can understand the slight embodiment of Christ that comes with the responsibility of manure maneuvers. Although the seams do not cross, they will connect at a later date, and everything will be revealed to the innocence of the simple bard.
submitted by DeliciousDeal to DeliciousDeal [link] [comments]

Updated FAQs for newcomers

TL:DR: Don't bother mining if you want to get rich yo. You're way too late to the party.
Welcome to the exciting and often stressful world of bitcoin! You are wondering what looks like a once in a lifetime opportunity to get rich quick. Of course you guys probably heard about this "mining" process but what is this?
Simply put, a bitcoin mining machine that performs complicated calculations and when deemed correct by the network, receives a block which contains 25 bitcoins (XBT). This is how bitcoins are generated. So your brain instantly thinks, "Holy shit, how can I get on this gold rush?"
Before you proceed further, I would like to explain the concept of mining further. Bitcoin is limited 21m in circulation. It is coded to release a certain number of blocks at a certain time frame, ie: this year the network will release close to 500,000 bitcoins. What this means is that the more people (or specifically the amount of mining power) mine, the less each person gets. The network tries to keep to this time frame through the process of difficulty adjustments which makes the calculations harder and this happens every 2 weeks. So every 2 weeks, you get less bitcoins with the same hash rate (mining power) based on what the difficulty changes are. Recently, the changes have been pretty staggering, jumping 226% in 2 months. You can see the difficulty changes here.
Now, why are these changes so large?
A bit of a simple history. Bitcoin's algorithm runs on SHA-256. This algorithm can be solved using many hardware, from CPU to GPU and dedicated hardware (Application Specific Integrated Circuits). When bitcoin first started, mining on CPU was a trivial process, you can pretty much earn 50 XBT (the block size then) every few hours between Q1 and Q2 of 2010.
In late 2010, due to the difficulty increase that is reducing the effectiveness of CPU mining, people started to harness GPU mining. Only AMD GPU's architecture design are better optimized for bitcoin mining so this is what the community used. Immediate improvements of more than 10x was not uncommon.
In time of course, GPUs reached their limit and people started to build dedicated. In the same vein as the CPU to GPU transition, similar performance increase was common. These ASICs can only perform SHA-256 calculation so they can be highly optimized. Their performance mainly depends on the die size of the chips exactly like CPU chips.
In general, think of bitcoin mining's technological advancement no different to mining gold. Gold panning (CPUs) vs pickaxes (GPUs) vs machinery (ASICs) and we are still in the ASIC mining race.
ASIC mining started with ASICMiner and Avalon being first to the market, both producing 130nm and 110nm chips. The technology are antiquated in comparison to CPUs and GPUs which are now 22nm with 14nm slated for Q1 next year by Intel but they are cheap to manufacture and with performance gains similar to the CPU to GPU transition, they were highly successful and popular for early adopters. At that point in time since there were less competing manufacturers and the low batch runs of their products, miners became really rich due to the slow increase in difficulty.
The good days came to an end mid August with an unprecedented 35% increase in difficulty. This is due to existing manufacturers selling more hardware and many other players coming onto the market with better hardware (smaller die). Since die shrinking knowledge and manufacturing process are well known along with a large technological gap (110nm vs 22nm), you get an arms race. Current ASIC makers are closing in on our technological limit and until everyone catches up, the difficulty jumps will be high because it is just too easy to get a performance increase. Most newer products run at 28nm and most chips are not well optimized, so it will be around another 6 to 9 months before we see hit a hard plateau with 22nm or 14nm chips. The estimated time frame is because manufacturing chips at 22nm or 14nm is a more difficult and expensive task. In the meantime most manufacturers will probably settle at 28nm and we will reach a soft plateau in about 3 months.
Now, you might ask these questions and should have them answered and if you have not thought about them at all, then you probably should not touch bitcoin until you understand cause you are highly unprepared and probably lose lots of money.
No. If you have to ask, please do not touch bitcoin yet. You will spend more on electricity cost than mining any substantial bitcoin. Seriously. At all. A 7990 would produce a pitiful 0.02879 XBT (USD $14 @ $500/XBT exchange rate) for the next 30 days starting 23 Nov 2013 at 35% difficulty increase.
And if you think you can mine on your laptop either on a CPU or GPU, you are probably going to melt it before you even get 0.01 XBT.
Probably not because you probably forgot that GPUs and CPUs produce a ton of heat and noise. You can try but I see no point earning < $20 bucks per month.
No, because your machine will probably not mine as much as buying bitcoins. This situation is called the opportunity cost. While you can still make money if XBT rise in value, it is a fallacy.
IE: if you start mining on 1 Dec 2013, a KnC Jupiter running at 450Gh/sec (KnC lies as not all chips run at 550Gh/sec) will yield you a total revenue of 9.5189 XBT with a profit of 0.7859 XBT in profit by 30th Jan 2014 at a constant difficulty increase of 35%. The opportunity cost is: 8.5910 XBT @ USD $580/XBT with USD $5,000 which is the cost of a KnC Jupiter. This is the best you can earn and it's a bloody optimistic assumption because:
The only circumstances where you will earn money is when XBT exchange rates is so high that it makes the opportunity cost pales in comparison. Unfortunately this is not the case. If XBT stabilized at 900/XBT today (20 Nov 2013) then we might have a good case.
The risk is just generally not worth it. Unless you have at least a hundred thousand and can make a contract with a manufacturer for a lower cost, do not bother. Just wait until the arms race is over then you can start mining.
Okay, go buy an AsicMiner USB Block Erupter. They are cheap and pretty fun to have.
Sure, just read the answer below on who NOT to go for. You are doing bitcoin a service by securing the network and you have our (the users') gratitude.
You can check out the manufacturers and their products below along with a calculator here.
If you still insist on buying, do not to go for BFL. Their track record is horrid and borderline scammish. KnC fucked up a lot with defective boards and chips. Personally, I think CoinTerra is the best choice.
Alternatively, you can go on the secondary market to buy a delivered product. You can get a better deal there if you know how to do your "return on investment (ROI)" calculation. Personally, I will go for a 45%-50% difficulty increase for the next 3 months for my calculations and a 2% pool fee.
However, most products on ebay are sold at a cost much higher than it should. bitcointalk.org is a cheaper place because everyone knows what are the true value is so you will find less options. If you are unclear or need assistance, please post a question.
I actually do not use any of the pools recommended to the left because I think they lack features.
My favourite is Bitminter (Variable fees based on features used; max 2%). It has all advanced features for a pool, very responsive and helpful owner on IRC. Variable fees is good for those who do not need a large feature set, even with all features turned on, it is still cheap.
Eligius (0% fees) has high value for money but lacks features. It has anonymous mining which might be attractive to certain subset of people but not for others. Many other community member and I disagree highly with the opinions of the owner on the direction of bitcoin. I do use his pool for now but I do so only because I share my miners with a few partners and anonymous mining allows us to monitor the machines without using an account. Bitminter uses only OpenID which is problematic for me.
BTC Guild (3% fees) is another big pool and is fully featured and does charge a premium for their fees. That said, they are the most stable of the lot. I do use them but do so only because my hoster uses them for monitoring. I try not to use them because a pool with a very large hash rate (they are the largest) presents a large vulnerability to bitcoin's network if compromised.
All of them pay out transaction fees.
submitted by Coz131 to BitcoinMining [link] [comments]

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